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Issue No.01 - Jan.-March (2012 vol.34)
pp: 4-6
<p>Applications from prior technologies are often reimplemented on new computing or communications platforms, and users sometimes don't realize that the applications have been recycled. For example, text messaging was available between computer users for years before its implementation on cell phones, and email has precursors before its implementation on the Internet. Noel Morris and author Tom Van Vleck implemented both an electronic mail command and a text messaging facility for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS) in 1965. This new ability encouraged users to share information in new ways.</p>
history of computing, Tom Van Vleck, Noel Morris, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Project Mac, email, text messaging, Compatible Time Sharing System, Multics
Tom Van Vleck, "Electronic Mail and Text Messaging in CTSS, 1965–1973", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.34, no. 1, pp. 4-6, Jan.-March 2012, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2012.6
1. E. Morris five-part New York Times blog posting about CTSS history and the creation of MAIL, June 2011; tom-van-vleck.
2. IEEE Computer Society History Committee, "The Compatible Time Sharing System (1961–1973) Fiftieth Anniversary Commemorative Overview,"24 June 2011; system.pdf .
3. L. Pouzin, G. Schroeder, and P. Crisman, "Proposed Minimum System Documentation," staff note 39, MIT, n.d., .
4. CTSS manual, "MAIL," AH.9.05, 1969; .
5. The CTSS source is available in Paul Pierce's archive, . The source of MAIL is the first file in archive file COM5 on tape S1.
6. CTSS manual, ". SAVED," AH.2.19, 1969; Dec69.pdf .
7. T. Van Vleck, "The IBM 7094 and CTSS," last updated Nov. 2010,
8. T. Van Vleck, "The History of Electronic Mail," Feb. 2001, .
9. See the Multics Networking and Communications webpage, http://www.multicians.orgmx-net.html, for details.
10. A. McKenzie, File Transfer Protocol, RFC 454, Feb. 1973;
11. A. Bhushan, FTP and Network Mail System, RFC 475, Mar. 1973;
12. C. Partridge, "The Technical Development of Internet Email," IEEE Annals, vol. 30, no. 2, 2008, pp. 3–29.
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