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Issue No.04 - October-December (2011 vol.33)
pp: 38-44
Alena Šolcová , Czech Technical University, Czech Republic
Michal Křížek , Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic
<p>The Czech scholar Vladim&#x00ED;r Vand (1911&#x2013;1968) substantially enriched many areas of science, from crystallography and astrogeology to computing. His most notable contribution to computing is the invention of a mechanical computer containing approximately 1 million little steel balls rolling through many guide bars. Using this research, Vand collaborated with William Cochran and Francis Crick on the early analysis of the structure of helix molecules.</p>
History of computing, Vladim&#x00ED;r Vand, William Cochran, Francis Crick, crystallography, Anton&#x00ED;n Svoboda, mechanical computer, DNA, x-rays, Fourier analysis
Alena Šolcová, Michal Křížek, "Vladimír Vand (1911–1968): Pioneer of Computational Methods in Crystallography", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.33, no. 4, pp. 38-44, October-December 2011, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2011.80
1. E. Těšínská et al., eds., Fyzik Václav Dolejšek (1895–1945), Matfyzpress, Prague, 2005 (in Czech).
2. V. Vand, "Dolejšek, V.—Obituary," Nature, vol. 157, 1946, pp. 471–472.
3. V. Vand, "Viscosity of Solutions and Suspensions. I: Theory," J. Physical and Colloid Chemistry, vol. 52, 1948, pp. 277–299.
4. Z. Kopal and V. Vand, Atlas d'etoiles variables. Première series [Atlas of Variable Stars. First Series], Czech Astronomical Soc., Štefánik Observatory, 1933.
5. V. Vand, "Changes of Resistance and Structure of Metallic Films Prepared by Evaporation in A High Vacuum Environment," Zeitschrift für Physik [Journal of Physics], vol. 104, 1937, pp. 48–67.
6. H. Durnová, "Sovietization of Czechoslovak Computing: The Rise and Fall of the SAPO Project," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 32, no. 2, 2010, pp. 21–31.
7. G.J. Klir ed., Memorable Ideas of a Computer School: The Life and Work of Antonín Svoboda, Czech Tech. Univ. Publishing House, 2007.
8. A. Šolcová and M. Křížek, A Journey to the Stars and into the Heart of Molecules. Destiny of Vladimír Vand, Designer of Computers, Inst. of Mathematics, 2011 (in Czech and English).
9. V. Vand, "Prague Conference on the Use of X-Rays in the Metal Industries, 28. 11.–1. 12.," Nature, vol. 157, 1946, pp. 415–416.
10. A. Svoboda, Computing Mechanisms and Linkages, McGraw-Hill, 1948.
11. In 1947, Svoboda presented his draft design for a computer in an open lecture in Prague. See Durnová, "Sovietization of Czechoslovak Computing."
12. V. Vand, "A Mechanical Calculating Machine for X-Ray Structure Factors," Nature, vol. 163, 1949, pp. 169–170.
13. V. Vand, "Magnifying 100 Million Times," The Meccano Magazine, vol. 36, 1951, p. 247.
14. V. Vand and I.P. Bell, "A Direct Determination of the Crystal Structure of the Beta-Form of Trilaurin," Acta Crystallographica, vol. 4, 1951, pp. 465–469.
15. V. Vand, T.R. Lomer, and A. Lang, "Crystal Structure of a Crossed-Chain Potassium Soup," Nature, vol. 159, 1947, p. 507.
16. V. Vand, "Method of Steepest Descents: Improved Formula for X-Ray Analysis," Nature, vol. 161, 1948, p. 600.
17. V. Vand, "Method of Steepest Descent in X-Ray Analysis," Nature, vol. 163, 1949, pp. 129–130.
18. Their method uses the interference of x-rays of a given frequency.
19. See Vand's letters in Šolcová and Křížek, A Journey to the Stars and into the Heart of Molecules. Destiny of Vladimír Vand, Designer of Computers.
20. W. Cochran, "This Week's Citation Classic," Current Contents, vol. 20, 1987, p. 16.
21. W. Cochran, F.H.C. Crick, and V. Vand, "The Structure of Synthetic Polypeptides. I. The Transform of Atoms on a Helix," Acta Crystallographica, vol. 5, no. 5, 1952, pp. 581–586.
22. Such a fundamental molecule of one strand of DNA is a couple of deoxyribose sugar and phosphate.
23. J.D. Watson, The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1968.
24. J.D. Watson and F.H.C. Crick, "A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid," Nature, vol. 171, 1953, pp. 737–738.
25. J.D. Watson and F.H.C. Crick, "Genetic Implications of the Structure of Deoxyribonucleic Acid," Nature, vol. 171, 1953, pp. 964–969.
26. V. Vand and R. Pepinsky, The Statistical Approach to X-Ray Structure Analysis, Pennsylvania State Univ., 1953.
27. V. Vand, "A Mathematical X-Ray Structure- Factor Calculating Machine," J. Scientific Instruments, vol. 27, 1950, pp. 257–261.
28. Annual Report 1967–1968, Materials Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State Univ., 1968, p. 142.
29. G.G. Johnson, V. Vand, and F. Dachille, "Additional Rims Around the Ries Kessel Meteoritic Crater," Nature, vol. 201, 1964, pp. 592–593.
30. V. Vand, Astrogeology: Terrestrial Meteoritic Craters and the Origin of Tektites, Academic Press, 1965.
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