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Issue No. 03 - July-September (2011 vol. 33)
ISSN: 1058-6180
pp: 32-45
Bernardo Batiz-Lazo , Bangor University
Robert J.K. Reid , University of Glasgow
<p>The success of currency dispensers in the 1960s was the technological precondition for the now omnipresent automated teller machines (ATMs). An examination of the three earliest separate instances of cash-dispensing technology not only illuminates the history of this device but demonstrates how users&#x2014;in this case banks&#x2014;shape and direct technological change.</p>
history of computing, cash dispensers, ATMs, history, financial data processing, patents, research and development, user interfaces, United Kingdom

R. J. Reid and B. Batiz-Lazo, "The Development of Cash-Dispensing Technology in the UK," in IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 33, no. , pp. 32-45, 2010.
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