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Issue No. 03 - July-September (2011 vol. 33)
ISSN: 1058-6180
pp: 22-31
Lars Heide , Copenhagen Business School
<p>Industrial production of office machines emerged in the 1880s and grew extensively until the Second World War. Although sales and applications of punched-card machines expanded in the interwar years, the key-set office machine industry lost dynamics and ultimately collapsed. The lack of scale and scope improvements in the development of key-set office machines was the major reason for this sharp contrast.</p>
history of computing, key-set office machines, typewriters, adding machines, multiplication machines, cash registers, punched-card machines, industrial competition, Burroughs, Felt &#x0026; Tarrant, Remington, National Cash Register Company, Herman Hollerith, IBM, Remington Rand

L. Heide, "Scale and Scope in American Key-Set Office Machine Dynamics, 1880s&#x2013;1930s," in IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 33, no. , pp. 22-31, 2010.
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