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Issue No. 03 - July-September (2010 vol. 32)
ISSN: 1058-6180
pp: 4-19
Hans Rüdiger Wiehle , University of the Armed Forces Munich , Ottobrunn
<p>In an historical overview of computer operations in scientific-technical environments from the second half of the 1950s to the mid-1960s, this article discusses the ways German universities and similar institutions initially used small computers. It reports on the emergence of high-level programming languages, the appearance and predominance of large batch-processing systems, and the arising efforts to reestablish a conversational mode of operations.</p>
history of computing, software engineering, software management, programming languages, operating systems, user-computer interaction, computer industry

H. R. Wiehle, "External Characteristics of Computer Operations: Toward Large Conversational Time-Sharing Systems," in IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 32, no. , pp. 4-19, 2009.
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