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Issue No.02 - April-June (2010 vol.32)
pp: 72-79
<p>Heinrich Welker's work as a theoretical physicist in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s focused on the then novel fields of superconductivity and CMOS technology. Specifically, his theoretical and experimental research on gallium arsenide laid the foundations for a range of diversified industries. His pioneering ideas are at the origin of the major technology developments that led to the 1970 inauguration of the Arpanet, precursor of the Internet. Compound semiconductors are the building blocks of light-emitting devices, such as lasers, and of light-detecting devices such as photocells. They opened the way to CD players and DVD recorders, sophisticated night-vision equipment, fiber optical communications systems, solar photovoltaic panels, flat-panel displays, mobile phones, and all devices that make up the technological revolution that shapes so many aspects of our lives.</p>
Heinrich Welker, transistron, Siemens, Herbert Matar&#x00E9;, III-V semiconductors, Gallium arsenide, history of computing
Armand Van Dormael, "Heinrich Welker", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.32, no. 2, pp. 72-79, April-June 2010, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2010.39
1. K. Handel, "Anfänge der Halbleiterforschung und –entwicklung" [The Beginnings of Semiconductor Research and Development], doctoral thesis, Cologne Univ., 1999, p. 29.
2. H. Welker, "Allgemeine Koordinaten und Bedingungsgleichungen in der Wellenmechanik" [General Coordinates and Constraint Equations in Wave Mechanics], Math. Annalen, vol. 113, 1936, pp. 304–319.
3. H. Welker, "Über ein Elektronentheoretisches Model des Supraleiters" [About a Theoretical Model of the Superconductor], Zeitung für technische Physik, vol. 19, 1936, pp. 606–611.
4. K. Handel, "Anfänge der Halbleiterforschung und –entwicklung," pp. 23–27.
5. "Halbleiteranordnung zur kapazitiven Steuerung von Strömen in einem Halbleiterkristal" [Semiconductor Arrangement for the capacitive Control of Flows in a Semiconductor Crystal], German patent 980 084, filed by H. Welker6 Apr. 1945; granted 7 Apr. 1973.
6. H. Welker, "Zur Elektronentheorie der Supraleitung" [About the Electron Theory of Superconductivity]. Physikalische Zeitung, 44, 1943, pp. 134–138.
7. K. Clusius, E. Holz, and H. Welker, "Elektrische Gleichrichteranordnung mit Germanium als Halbleiter und Verfahren zur Herstellung von Germanium für eine solche Gleichrichterordnung" [Electrical Rectifiers with Germanium as Semiconductor], patent DE966387, 3 Oct. 1942.
8. K. Handel, "Anfänge der Halbleiterforschung und –entwicklung," pp. 76–85.
9. "H. Thirring letter to H. Welker," Deutsches Museum, Munich, 25 Jul. 1942.
10. W. Shockley, Electrons and Holes in Semiconductors, with Applications to Transistor Electronics, Krieger, 1956.
11. A. Van Dormael, "Biography of Herbert Mataré," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 31, no. 3, 2009, pp. 68–73.
12. "H.F. Mataré letters to A. Van Dormael,"28 Sept. 2003,27 Feb. 2004,24 Jul. 2004.
13. "W. Heisenberg letter to H. Welker," H. Welker papers, Deutsches Museum, Munich, 5 May 1948.
14. Compagnie des Freins et Signaux Westinghouse, "Nouveau système cristallin à plusieurs électrodes réalisant des effets de relais électroniques" [New System for Producing Multiple Electrode Effects in Electronic Relays]. French patent 1.010.427, filed on 13 Aug. 1948. H.F. Mataré and H. Welker, "Crystal device for Controlling Electric Currents by Means of a Solid Semiconductor," US patent 2,673,948, 13 Aug. 1948.
15. H.F. Mataré, "Erlebnisse eines deutschen Physikers und Ingenieurs von 1912 bis zum Ende des Jahrhunderts" [Memoirs of a German Physicist and Engineer from 1912 until the End of the Century], Georg Heidecker, 2001, pp. 34–45.
16. J.W. Octon, Semiconductors and the Information Revolution: Magic Crystals that Made IT Happen, Kindle ed., 2009, pp. 138–139.
17. H. Wada, "Pioneering Electronics and Computer Technologies in Postwar Japan," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 30, no. 3, 2008, pp. 84–89.
18. H.J. Welker, "From Solid State Research to Semi-Conductor Electronics," Ann. Rev. of Materials Science, Aug. 1979, pp. 1–22.
19. O. Madelung, "Schottky-Spengler-Welker, Erinnerungen an die 'Gründerjahre' der Halbleiterphysik in Deutschland nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg" [Schottky-Spengler-Welker: The Early Years of Solid State Physics in Germany after the Second World War], Physikalische Blätter, 1999, no. 6, pp. 44–58.
20. "Gallium-Arsenid avanciert zum Halbleiter der Zukunft" [Gallium Arsenide is Moving to Become the Semiconductor of the Future], Computerwoche,23 Mar. 1990.
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