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Issue No.02 - April-June (2009 vol.31)
pp: 31-43
Hans Neukom, "Ubisco and CDC: Analysis of a Failure", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.31, no. 2, pp. 31-43, April-June 2009, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2009.33
1. R.N. Charette, "Why Software Fails," IEEE Spectrum, vol. 42, no. 9, 2005, pp. 42-49.
2. H. Neukom, "Early Use of Computers in Swiss Banks," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 26, no. 3, 2004, pp. 50-59.
3. Control Data Corporation (CDC), "Swiss Bank Buys $12.3 Million Control Data Multi-Computer System," press release, 1971.
4. CDC, "Control Data Says Swiss Bank Wants to Discontinue Data Processing Project," press release, 1974.
5. CDC, "Control Data, UBS Reach Agreement," press release, 1980.
6. W. Aschwanden, "Ubisco-Computer eingetroffen!" [The Ubisco Computer Arrived], Information SBG, 1973, pp. 1,3,9 (in German).
7. P. Bölli, "Der Ubisco-Countdown hat begonnen" [The Ubisco Countdown Has Begun], Information SBG, 1973, p. 1 (in German).
8. Ebnet and Wälchli, "Ubisco hält Einzug in Zürich" [Ubisco Arrives in Zürich], Information SBG, 1973, p. 1 (in German).
9. F. Tisi, "Wie steht es wirklich mit Ubisco?" [What Is the Situation with Ubisco?], Information SBG, 1974, p. 3 (in German).
10. D.E. Lundstrom, A Few Good Men from Univac, MIT Press, 1987.
11. D.N. Chorafas and H. Steinmann, High Technology at UBS for Excellence in Client Service, UBS, 1988.
12. J.C. Worthy, William C. Norris: Portrait of a Maverick, Ballinger, 1987.
13. R.M. Price, The Eye for Innovation: Recognizing Possibilities and Managing the Creative Enterprise, Yale Univ. Press, 2005, p. 214.
14. "Ubisco Papers," Historical Archives of UBS, Basel, 1970–1980. The Ubisco papers were made available for my research on the condition that specific individual documents, names of people involved, and detailed financial figures were not published. Therefore, I cannot identify specific documents and individuals involved in crucial decisions or quote monetary amounts unless such details have been published elsewhere and are already in the public domain.
15. CDC Records, William C. Norris Executive Papers, CBI 80, Charles Babbage Inst. (CBI), Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 1972–1975.
16. UBS v. CDC Court Briefs, Oppenheimer Wolff &Donnelly Archives, Minneapolis, 1975–1978.
17. A. Holzner interview by H. Neukom, Apr. 2006. K. Rüst interview by H. Neukom, Mar. 2006.
18. P. Gross interview by H. Neukom, Nov. 2006.
19. D. Alcock interview by H. Neukom, Mar. 2007.
20. J.-C. Wenger, SBG AG v. CD AG,, initial brief UBS, Oppenheim Wolff and Donnelly, 14 Mar. 1975.
21. I had access to the English translation of the lost German original: "Purchase Contract for Control Data Equipment between Union Bank of Switzerland and Control Data AG," Oppenheim Wolff and Donnelly, 15 Dec. 1971.
22. "Programme of the Meeting CDC/UBS," internal document, Schweizerische Bankgesellschaft (SBG), 22 June 1972.
23. "UBS Discussion Notes," internal document, CDC, 31 May 1972.
24. "Joint Audit CDC/UBS of CDC Software," CDC and SBG, 2 Sept. 1974.
25. "Ubisco-Broschüre," SBG, Zürich, 1973 (in German).
26. T. Angell and T.M. Randell, "Generalized Data Management Systems," IEEE Computer Group News, 1969, pp. 5-12.
27. P.C Patton, "Trends in Data Organization and Access Methods," Computer, vol. 3, no. 6, 1970, pp. 18-24.
28. L. Johnson, "Creating the Software Industry: Recollections of Software Company Founders of the 1960s," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 24, no. 1, 2002, pp. 14-42.
29. F.P. Brooks, "The Mythical Man-Month," The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software Engineering, anniversary ed., Univ. of North Carolina, 1995, pp. 13-28.
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