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Issue No. 03 - July-September (2007 vol. 29)
ISSN: 1058-6180
pp: 6-19
Martin Campbell-Kelly , University of Warwick
The first personal-computer spreadsheet, VisiCalc, was launched in May 1979. During the next decade, the spreadsheet evolved from a simple calculating aid to an indispensable tool of modern business, employed by tens of millions of users who had little or no direct computer experience. This article describes the development of spreadsheet usability from VisiCalc through Lotus 1-2-3 to Microsoft Excel.
spreadsheets, usability
Martin Campbell-Kelly, "Number Crunching without Programming: The Evolution of Spreadsheet Usability", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 29, no. , pp. 6-19, July-September 2007, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2007.43
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