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Issue No.01 - January-March (2007 vol.29)
pp: 3-15
From the perspective of an information security researcher and consultant who studied crime for 40 years, this brief history of computer crime delves into study methods and presents findings from many years of National Science Foundation and US Department of Justice grant-supported research and business support at SRI International.
computer crime, cybercrime, information security, SRI International, National Science Foundation, Department of Justice
Donn B. Parker, "The Dark Side of Computing: SRI International and the Study of Computer Crime", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.29, no. 1, pp. 3-15, January-March 2007, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2007.15
1. B. Donn, "Parker Papers," Charles Babbage Inst. (CBI) archives, CBI 166, Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, http:/
2. Esquire, Oct. 1971, pp. 116ff. , Also see A. Lundell and G.M. Haugen, "The Merry Pranksters of Microcomputing," at and "The Official Phreaker's Manual by Ron Rosenbaum at .
3. Proc. Spring Joint Computer Conf., session on computer security, AFIPS Press, 1967, Charles Babbage Inst. for the History of Information Technology, Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis
4. Criminalistics and the World of the Future, SRI Int'l Engineering Division Project Report, SRI Int'l, 1971.
5. D.B. Parker, Computer-Related Crime and Data Security, SRI Int'l Long Range Planning Service Division, SRI Int'l, 1972.
6. R. Abbott, Threats to Multi-access Computer Systems, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Project RISOS (Risks in Security of Operating Systems), Livermore, Calif, 1974.
7. D.B. Parker, S. Nycum, and S. Stephen Oura, Computer Abuse, SRI Int'l Report, SRI Int'l, 1973.
8. D.B. Parker, Fighting Computer Crime, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1983.
9. The Mafia at one time became interested in our studies, and an FBI agent urged me to play along. A mobster visited me on the pretext of authoring a book and unsuccessfully attempted to gain my assistance after reading my publicly available reports and books.
10. D.R. Cressey, Other People's Money: A Study in the Social Psychology of Embezzlement, Wadsworth, 1971, p. 30.
11. J. Martin, Security, Accuracy, and Privacy in Computer Systems, Prentice-Hall, 1973, p. 11.
12. Systems Auditability and Control (SAC), study, Inst. of Internal Auditors, Altamont Springs, Fla., 1975.
13. CSI Computer Security Journal and "Computer Security Alert"; see http:/
14. The consulting work continues today in an SRI spin-off company that RedSiren Inc. acquired and has now become Getronics RedSiren.
15. Some of those we trained were David Hind, a New Scotland Yard detective superintendent; Juhani Saari, an auditor from Finland; Stein Schjolberg, a noted judge from Norway; a chief of police from Sweden, and several Japanese policemen to investigate computer abuse and misuse in their countries. They worked on the computer crime studies and wrote reports mostly for their own criminal justice agencies.
16. D.B. Parker, Computer Security Techniques, report,US Dept. of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics (under grant No. 80-BJ-CX-0015), 1980.
17. D.B. Parker, Ethical Conflicts in Computer Science and Technology, Am. Federation of Information Processing Societies (AFIPS) Press, 1978, p. 159, .
18. D.B. Parker, B.N. Baker, and S. Swope, Ethical Conflicts in Information and Computer Science, Technology, and Business, QED Information Sciences, 1990.
19. D.B. Parker, Crime by Computer, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976.
20. D.B. Parker, Computer Security Management, Reston Publishing, 1983.
21. Criminal Justice Resource Manual, National Criminal Justice Information and Statistics Service, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, US Department of Justice, 1979, also, Criminal Justice Resource Manual, 2nd ed.,Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, Issues and Practices, US Department of Justice, 1989.
22. R.L. Soble, R.E. Dallos, The Impossible Dream, G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1975, L.J. Seidler, F. Andrews, and M.J. Epstein The Equity Funding Papers,John Wiley & Sons, 1977.
23. S. Fay, The Collapse of Barings,, W.W. Norton and Co, 1996.
24. K. Hafner and J. Markoff, Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier, Simon & Schuster, 1991.
25. B. Donn, "Parker Papers, case 81310, box 12, folder 210, CBI 166, CBI archives," Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis
26. D.B. Parker, Crime by Computer, vol. chapter 16, p. 192.
27. D.B. Parker, Fighting Computer Crime, p. 3.
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