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Issue No.03 - July-September (2004 vol.26)
pp: 4-19
The German IBM laboratory in Boeblingen, founded in 1953, was initially oriented toward research and exploratory development. It turned to full product development capabilities between 1960 and 1964. This article touches on the interactive driving forces of evolving technologies, market opportunities, company policies, and the vision and creativity of many individuals.
Karl E. Ganzhorn, "The Buildup of the IBM Boeblingen Laboratory", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.26, no. 3, pp. 4-19, July-September 2004, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2004.16
1. W. Sprick Patent Applications by IBM Germany, number I 8810 and 10602, 1954 and 1955.
2. T. Einsele, "DieVerwendung von Transistoren als unipolare Trennschalter in Ferritkern-Speichern" [Use of Transistors as Unipolar Switches in Ferrite Core Memories], Laborbericht, no. 13,12 June 1956 (in German).
3. A. Kroesa and K. Ganzhorn, "Transistoren in der Rechenmaschinentechnik" [Transistors in Computing Machines] Elektron. Rundschau [Electronics Overview], vol. 9, no. 10, 1955, p. 377 (in German).
4. W. Hofmann, E. Jung, and H. Maier, Investigations on the Sensing Reliability of Punched Cards, a tech. report 05.004, Boeblingen Laboratory, 2 Jan. 1962.
5. G. Hermann, Pin Counter, tech. report 05.063, Boeblingen Laboratory, 22 June 1963.
6. C.J. Bashe et al., IBM's Early Computers, MIT Press, 1986, pp. 459-522.
7. B.C. Christensen et al., Report on the World Wide Accounting Machine Program, IBM internal report, 20 July 1955.
8. G.V. Hawkins:, Report to J.J. Troy on WWAM Proposal, IBM internal report, 5 Jan. 1956.
9. In 1962, this 8th bit plane would open an opportunity in a follow-on extension of the later IBM 1401 undertaken by the German laboratory by enabling an 8-bit character code for text processing in Katakana, Japan's phonetic alphabet with 56 characters and no word mark required.
10. C.J. Bashe et al., IBM's Early Computers, MIT Press, 1986.
11. J.W. Forrester, J. Applied Physics, Jan. 1951.
12. M.K. Haynes, Magnetic Core Logical Circuits, US patent 2,695,993, Docket 4299, 30 Nov. 1954.
13. M. Karnaugh, "Pulse Switching Circuits, Using Magnetic Cores," Proc. Inst. Radio Engineers, vol. 43, Inst. Radio Engineers, 1955, pp. 570-584.
14. L.A. Rajchman and A.W. Lo, "The Transfluxor," Proc. Inst. Radio Engineers, vol. 44, 1956, Inst. Radio Engineers, pp. 321-332.
15. G.G. Scarrot, W.W. Harwood, and K.C Johnson, "The Design and Use of Logical Devices Using Saturable Magnetic Cores," Proc. Inst. Electrical Engineers, part B, supplement no. 2, vol. 103, IEE, 1956, pp. 302-312.
16. K.E. Ganzhorn, Basic Magnetic Logical Circuits, tech. report GTR 506.031.007, IBM, 25 Sept. 1956.
17. K.E. Ganzhorn, "Magnetische Logische Grundschaltungen" [Magnetic Logic Circuits], Elektron. Rundschau [Electronics Overview], vol. 8, 1957, pp. 229-234 (in German).
18. T. Einsele, H. Frantz, and K.E. Ganzhorn, Magnetic Arithmetic Units with Transistor Switches, tech. report GTR 508.055.012, IBM, 26 June 1957.
19. K.E. Ganzhorn and H. Frantz, Magnetic Registers for a Serial Computer, tech. report GTR 508.004.016, IBM, 18 Sept. 1957.
20. K. Weiss, Core-Transistor Logic System, Part A, tech. report GTR 508.044.021, IBM, 12 Aug. 1958.
21. K.E. Ganzhorn and T. Einsele, Addierwerk [Adder], DPA [German Patent Office] Patent Nr. 1.059.212, 6/1959 (in German).
22. H. Zschage, Automatic Single Core Winder, tech. report GTR 0505.006.027, IBM, 15 Sept. 1959.
23. W. Kulcke and E. Max, The Electro-Optic Effect and its Application for the Control of Light, Part I: Theory of the Electro-Optic Effect, Boeblingen Laboratory, German tech. report, Mar. 1962.
24. K.E. Ganzhorn, "Optoelektronische Bauelemente für digitale Steuerungen" [Optoelectronic Components for Digital Control Circuits], Laborbericht no. 26,,4 Apr. 1957 (in German).
25. K.E. Ganzhorn, "Binre Logische Schaltelemente für Polarisierte Strahlung," [Binary logic switching elements for polarized Radiation], Phys. Verhandl. [Physics Proc.], vol. 13, no. 10, 1962, p. 229 (in German).
26. K.E. Ganzhorn, P. Schweitzer, and W. Kulcke, Demonstrationsmodell für binäre optische Rechner [Demonstration model for binary optical calculators], DPA [German Patent Office] patent 1.059.214, 11/1959 (in German).
27. W. Kulcke, "Zur Anwendung von Ammonium-dihydrogensulfat und Dazu Isomeren Kristallen in der Elektronischen Datenverarbeitung" [Application of Ammonium-dihydrogensulfate and its Isomeric Crystals in Electronic Data Processing], Laborbericht G/8061/6, Oct. 1960 (in German).
28. L. Fischle and W. Kulcke, The Electro-Optic Effect and its Application for the Control of Light, Part II: Crystal Growth, German tech. report, Boeblingen Laboratory, Mar. 1962.
29. W. Kulcke, French patent, Au Brevet d'Invention 1.255.898, 21 Oct. 1959.
30. K. Kosanke, The Electro-Optic Effect and its Application for the Control of Light, Part III: High Speed Electro-optic Character Generation, Boeblingen Laboratory, German tech. report 05.011.052, 1962.
31. W. Kulcke and E. Max, "Electro-optic Printing," Proc. Sixth Int'l Congress High-Speed Photography, 1964, p. 29.
32. A. Schulz, High-Speed Dielectric Sensing of Punched Tapes, tech. report TR 518.063.014, IBM, Nov. 1957.
33. H. Maier, "Kartenlauf-Untersuchungen am Roboter für die dielektrische Serien-Abfühlung der 3000-Karte" [Card Flow Investigations with a Robot for Dielectric Sensing of the System/3000 Card], German Laboratory Report G 8122/1, 22 Aug. 1961 (in German).
34. W. Sprick, C. Brockelt, and A. Schulz et al., Deutsche Patentschrift: Anordnung zur maschinellen Auswertung von Lochschecks u. dgl. Abrechnungsformularen, Anmeldetag 2.4.60, Ausgabetag 2.3.67, [German Patent: Device for Automatic Evaluation of Punched Checks and Similar Bookkeeping Forms, filed 4/2/1960, issued 3/2, 1967], (in German).
35. M. Briner and T. Scheler, A New Computer Concept, IBM tech. report GTR, IBM, 15 Sept. 1959.
36. M. Preisinger, "Application of Ultrasonics to High-Speed Printing," presentation given at an IBM eng. symp. in Amsterdam, 1960.
37. M. Preisinger, Ultrasonic or Magnetostrictive Printing, IBM tech. note GTN, IBM, 9 Mar. 1962.
38. A.P. Speiser, "IBM Research Laboratory Zurich: The Early Years," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 20, no. 1, Jan.–Mar. 1998, pp. 15-28.
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