Issue No. 03 - July-September (2002 vol. 24)
<p>Information retrieval has evolved through four phases: manual and mechanical devices; offline computing; online computing and vendor access; and distributed, networked, and mass computing. This article primarily addresses the first three phases.</p>
J. Griffiths and D. W. King, "US Information Retrieval System Evolution and Evaluation," in IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 24, no. , pp. 35-55, 2002.