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ABSTRACT
<p>Information retrieval has evolved through four phases: manual and mechanical devices; offline computing; online computing and vendor access; and distributed, networked, and mass computing. This article primarily addresses the first three phases.</p>
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CITATION
José-Marie Griffiths, Donald W. King, "US Information Retrieval System Evolution and Evaluation", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 24, no. , pp. 35-55, July-September 2002, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2002.1024761
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