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<p>The computer promised business of the 1950s an administrative revolution. What it delivered was data processing-a hybrid of new technology and existing punched card machines, people, and attitudes. The author examines how first-generation computers were sold and purchased, and describes the occupations (analyst, programmer, and operator) and departments that emerged around them. This illuminates claims of a more recent electronic revolution in business.</p>
Thomas Haigh, "The Chromium-Plated Tabulator: Institutionalizing an Electronic Revolution, 1954-1958", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 23, no. , pp. 75-104, October-December 2001, doi:10.1109/85.969965
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