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Issue No. 01 - January-March (2001 vol. 23)
ISSN: 1058-6180
pp: 3-16
<p>The change from transistors to integrated circuits in the mid-1960s marked the beginning of third-generation computers. A late entrant (1962) in the general-purpose, transistor computer market, Sperry Rand Corporation moved quickly to produce computers using ICs. The Univac 1108's success (1965) reversed the company's declining fortunes in the large-scale arena, while the 9000 series upheld its market share in smaller computers. Sperry Rand failed to develop a successful minicomputer and, faced with IBM's dominant market position by the end of the 1970s, struggled to maintain its position in the computer industry.</p>

G. T. Gray and R. Q. Smith, "Sperry Rand's Third-Generation Computers 1964-1980," in IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 23, no. , pp. 3-16, 2001.
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