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Issue No.01 - January-March (2001 vol.23)
pp: 3-16
<p>The change from transistors to integrated circuits in the mid-1960s marked the beginning of third-generation computers. A late entrant (1962) in the general-purpose, transistor computer market, Sperry Rand Corporation moved quickly to produce computers using ICs. The Univac 1108's success (1965) reversed the company's declining fortunes in the large-scale arena, while the 9000 series upheld its market share in smaller computers. Sperry Rand failed to develop a successful minicomputer and, faced with IBM's dominant market position by the end of the 1970s, struggled to maintain its position in the computer industry.</p>
George T. Gray, Ronald Q. Smith, "Sperry Rand's Third-Generation Computers 1964-1980", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.23, no. 1, pp. 3-16, January-March 2001, doi:10.1109/85.910845
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4. Nike-X DPS Machine-Oriented Programming Manual, Feb.21 1966 (Sperry Rand Corp., St. Paul, Minn.); andABM Research and Development at Bell Laboratories Project Historyprepared for the US Army Ballistic Missile Defense Systems Command under Contract DAH60-71-C-0005, October 1975.
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6. Datamation: Sept. 1966, p. 19; Oct. 1967, p. 135; Mar. 1968, p. 131; June 1969, p. 149.
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19. Gray, "The First Time Ever I Saw an 1108," p. 44.
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23. D.L. Boslaugh, pp. 370-372.
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