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Issue No.03 - July-September (2000 vol.22)
pp: 42-87
<p>The author discusses whether early entry was a competitive advantage in academic computing. This is accomplished by examining the first three decades of computing at five universities—MIT, Harvard, the University of Pennsylvania, Columbia, and Princeton—that initiated computing programs in the 1940s.</p>
William Aspray, "Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.22, no. 3, pp. 42-87, July-September 2000, doi:10.1109/85.859525
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3. MIT, Report of the President, 1961 through 1964, 1966 through 1969, 1971, MIT Archives and Special Collections.
4. I.B. Cohen, Howard Aiken, Computer Pioneer.Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1991.
5. A. Oettinger Oral history interview by W. Aspray, Cambridge, Mass.,26 Mar. 1998, Charles Babbage Inst. Archives, University of Minn., Minneapolis, MN.
6. Harvard University, Division of Engineering and Applied Physics, Dean's Report, 1960-61 and 1961-62, Harvard University Archives.
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12. A. Joshi Oral history interview by W. Aspray, Philadelphia, Pa.,12 Feb. 1998, Charles Babbage Inst. Archives.
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15. University of Pennsylvania Computer Activity Report, 1 July 1959 to 30 December 1960, Charles Babbage Institute Archives.
16. J. Traub Oral history interviews by William Aspray, New York, N.Y.,5 April 1984, 12 Oct. 1984, 29 March 1984, Charles Babbage Inst. Archives.
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29. W. Aspray and B.O. Williams, "Arming American Scientists: The Role of the National Science Foundation in the Provision of Scientific Computing Facilities," Annals of the History Computing, Vol. 16, No. 4, Winter 1995, pp. 60-74.
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51. S.W. Leslie, The Cold War and American Science, Columbia Univ. Press, N.Y., 1993.
52. J.C.R. Licklider Oral history interview by A. Norberg and W. Aspray, Cambridge, Mass., 1988, Charles Babbage Institute Archives.
53. M.S. Mahoney, "Engineering Plus": Technical Education and the Liberal Arts at Princeton, forthcoming.
54. I will not discuss the relationship between analogue and digital approaches here. See L. Owen, "Where Are We Going, Phil Morse? Changing Agendas and the Rhetoric of Obviousness in the Transformation of Computing at MIT, 1939-1957," Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 18, no. 4, 1996, pp. 34-41. A report from the Union of Young Scientists in AtV as late as 1963 concluded that both approaches have their advantages. AtV-archive, Box 192, op cit.
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56. L. Owens, "MIT and the Federal 'Angel': Academic R&D and Federal-Private Cooperation Before World War II," Isis 81, 1990 pp. 63-95.
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63. N. Tongas, "Computers at Princeton", Princeton Alumni Weekly,6 Apr. 1983, pp. 22-32.
64. I. Travis Oral history interview by W. Aspray and I. Auerbach, Paoli, Pa., 1988, Charles Babbage Institute Archives.
65. F. Verzuh Oral history interview by W. Aspray, Boston, Mass.,20 Feb. 1984, Charles Babbage Institute Archives.
66. G.W. Welch, "Aiken's Program in a Harvard Setting", with a concluding note by Adam Rabb Cohen, in Cohen, I.B. and Gregory Welch, eds. Howard H.. Aiken: Computer Pioneer. Unpublished manuscript, 1993.
67. G.W. Welch, "Aiken's Computer Science Program at Harvard," I.B. Cohen and G.W. Welch, eds., with the cooperation of R.V.D. Campbell, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1999.
68. K.L. Wildes and N.A. Lindgren, A Century of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT, 1882-1982.Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1985, p. 348. Project MAC had wider aims, captured in the alternative version of the acronym, Machine-Aided Cognition, for which see, e.g., Norberg and O'Neill, Transforming Computer Technology, and P.N. Edwards, The Closed World: Computers and the Politics of Discourse in Cold War America. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996.
69. G.P. Zachary, Endless Frontier: Vannevar Bush, Engineer of the American Century, Free Press, N.Y., 1997.
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