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Issue No.03 - July-September (2000 vol.22)
pp: 27-41
<p>The code-breaking activities of the British Government Code & Cipher School at Bletchley Park have dominated our understanding of the secret war to infiltrate the message system of the German forces in Europe between 1939 and 1945. This is the story of the US Navy's response to the need to gain intelligence to win the Battle of the Atlantic in 1941 and 1942, the competitive development of mechanical code-breaking systems, and the contributions of NCR engineer Joseph Desch and 600 Navy WAVES.</p>
John A.N. Lee, Colin Burke, Deborah Anderson, "The US Bombes, NCR, Joseph Desch, and 600 WAVES: The First Reunion of the US Naval Computing Machine Laboratory", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.22, no. 3, pp. 27-41, July-September 2000, doi:10.1109/85.859524
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3. B. Johnson, The Secret War. British Broadcasting Corp., London, 1978.
4. J.A.N. Lee, Computer Pioneers. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif.: 1995, pp. 328-334,
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6. F.H. Hinsley et al., British Intelligence in the Second World War: Its Influence on Strategy and Operations. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1981.
7. M. Rejewski, "How Polish Mathematicians Deciphered the Enigma," Annals of the History of Computing, Vol. 3, No. 3, July 1981, pp. 213-234,
8. T. Parrish, The Ultra Americans: The U.S. Role in Breaking the Nazi Codes. Stein and Day, New York, 1986.
9. J.C. Russell, "Ultra and the Campaign Against the U-boats in World War II," individual study project, US Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, Pa., May 1980; U_S_NAVY.TXT.
10. E.J. King, "U.S. Navy at War 1941-1945," Official Reports of the Secretary of the Navy, US Navy Dept., Washington, D.C., 1946, p. 206.
11. R.L. Benson, "A History of U.S. Communications Intelligence during World War II: Policy and Administration," Series IV, World War II, Vol. 8, Center for Cryptological History, National Security Agency, 1997.
12. C. Burke, Information and Secrecy: Vannevar Bush, Ultra, and the Other Memex. Scarecrow Press, Metuchen, N.J., 1994.
13. V. Bush, "As We May Think," Atlantic Monthly, July 1945, pp. 101-108.
14. E. Tomash and A.A. Cohen, "The Birth of ERA: Engineering Research Associates, Inc., 1946-1955," Annals of the History of Computing, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 83-97, 1979.
15. J. Wilcox, "Sharing the Burden: Women in Cryptology during World War II," Center for Cryptologic History, Nat'l Security Agency, Fort George G. Meade, Md., Mar. 1998.
16. J. Desch, "Report to Harry Williams," Jan.21 1942, p. 1.
17. J. Desch, "Report to Harry Williams," Nov.30 1945, p. 3.
18. Ibid., p. 8.
19. Ibid., p. 9.
20. Ibid., p. 11.
21. J. Desch interview with H. Tropp, 1973. Available from the Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
22. Dickinson v. Desch, Interferences 82551 and 82679, U.S. Patent Office.
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