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Issue No.02 - April-June (1998 vol.20)
pp: 7-13
<p>The National Bureau of Standards Electronic Automatic Computer, SEAC, completed in 1950, was the first electronic computer with an internally stored program in the U.S. government. This paper describes how scanning and computer processing of images began at the National Bureau of Standards in 1956 and how the use of SEAC made possible experiments that led to the widespread use of image processing and many other computer innovations.</p>
Russell A. Kirsch, "SEAC and the Start of Image Processing at the National Bureau of Standards", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.20, no. 2, pp. 7-13, April-June 1998, doi:10.1109/85.667290
1. "Computer Development (SEAC and DYSEAC) at the National Bureau of Standards," National Bureau of Standards Circular 551,Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 25 January 1955.
2. M. Abramowitz and I. Stegun, eds., Handbook of Mathematical Functions With Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables, National Bureau of Standards Applied Mathematics Series 55, Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1964.
3. P.D. Shupe and R.A. Kirsch, "SEAC, Review of Three Years' Operation," Proc. Eastern Joint Computer Conf.,8-10 Dec. 1953.
4. Genesis 11:6
5. L.C. Ray and R.A. Kirsch, "Finding Chemical Records by Digital Computers," Science, vol. 126, no. 3,278, pp. 814-819,25 Oct. 1957.
6. R.A. Kirsch, "Experiments With a Computer Learning Routine," Nat'l Bureau of Standards Computer Seminar Notes,30 July 1954.
7. F.L. Alt and R.A. Kirsch, "Citation Searching and Bibliographic Coupling With Remote On-Line Computer Access," J. Research, NBS, vol. 72B, no. 1, pp. 61-78, Jan. 1968.
8. W.C. Watt, "PLACEBO IV: Rules, Concordance, Sample Computer Generation," Nat'l Bureau of Standards Technical Note 255, 1965.
9. M.E. Stevens, "Automatic Character Recognition, a State of the Art Report," Nat'l Bureau of Standards Technical Note 112, May 1961.
10. J. von Neumann, "Probabilistic Logics and the Synthesis of Reliable Organisms From Unreliable Components," C.E. Shannon and J. McCarthy, eds., Automata Studies.Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press, 1956, pp. 43-98.
11. R.A. Kirsch, L. Cahn C. Ray , and G.H. Urban, "Experiments in Processing Pictorial Information With a Digital Computer," Proc. Eastern Joint Computer Conf.,9-13 Dec. 1957.
12. G. Bovini, "Ravenna Mosaics," Phaidon, 1978.
13. G.A. Moore and L.L. Wyman, "Quantitative Metallography With a Digital Computer, Application to a Nb-Sn Superconducting Wire," J. Research of the Nat'l Bureau of Standards-A, (Physics and Chemistry), vol. 67A, no. 2, pp. 127-147, Mar.-Apr. 1963.
14. C.G. Interrante and G.E. Hicho, "Standard Reference Materials: A Standard Reference Material Containing Nominally Fifteen Percent Austenite," Nat'l Bureau of Standards Spec. Publication, pp. 260-273, Dec. 1981.
15. J.H. Wegstein, "A Semi-Automated Single Fingerprint Identification System," Nat'l Bureau of Standards Technical Note 481, 1969.
16. E.C. Teague, F.E. Scire, S.M. Baker, and S.W. Jensen, "Three Dimensional Stylus Profilometry," Wear, vol. 83, pp. 1-12, 1982.
17. E.L. Graminski and R.A. Kirsch, "Image Analysis in Paper Manufacturing," Proc. IEEE Computer Society Conf. Pattern Recognition and Image Processing,6-8 June 1977.
18. G. VanderBrug, J. Albus, and E. Barkmeyer, "A Vision System for Real-Time Control of Robots," Proc. Ninth Int'l Symp. Industrial Robots,Washington, D.C.,13-15 Mar. 1979.
19. L.E. Lipkin, W.C. Watt, and R.A. Kirsch, "The Analysis, Synthesis, and Description of Biological Images," Annals of the New York Academy of Science, vol. 128, pp. 984-1,012,31 Jan. 1966.
20. G. Stiny and J. Gips, Algorithmic Aesthetics, Computer Models for Criticism and Design in the Arts.Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1978.
21. R.A. Kirsch, "Making Art Historical Sources Visible to Computers: Pictures as Primary Sources for Computer-Based Art History Data," Second Int'l Conf. Automatic Processing of Art History Data and Documents, pp. 273-290,Pisa, Italy,24-27 Sept. 1984, vol. 2, L. Corti, ed., J. Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles.
22. J.L. Kirsch and R.A. Kirsch, "The Structure of Paintings: Formal Grammar and Design," Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, vol. 13, pp. 163-176, 1986.
23. J.L. Kirsch and R.A. Kirsch, "Storing Art Images in Intelligent Computers," Proc. First Int'l Symp. Electronic Art,Netherlands, Sept. 1988, published as Leonardo, Electronic Art Supplemental Issue, pp. 47-54, 1988 and also as Leonardo, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 99-106, 1990.
24. R.A. Kirsch, "Using Computers to Describe Style," Amer. Indian Rock Art, vol. 22, 1996.
25. R.T. Moore, M.C. Stark, and L. Cahn, "Digitizing Pictorial Information With a Precision Optical Scanner," Photogrammetric Eng., vol. 30, no. 6, p. 923, Nov. 1964.
26. R.A. Kirsch, "Computer Interpretation of English Text and Picture Patterns," IEEE Trans. Electronic Computers, vol. 13, pp. 363-376, Aug. 1964.
27. D.S. Bright, "A Lisp-Based Image Analysis System With Applications to Microscopy," J. Microscopy, vol. 148, part 1, pp. 51-87, 1987.
28. I. Amato, "The Man Who Almost Saw Atoms," Science, vol. 276, p. 1,984,27 June 1997.
29. T.W. Hodapp, C. Gerz, C. Furtlehner, C.I. Westbrook, W.D. Phillips, and J. Dalibard, "Three-Dimensional Spatial Diffusion in Optical Molasses," Applied Physics, vol. B60, pp. 135-143, 1995.
30. H.D. Huskey, R. Thorensen, B.F. Ambrosio, and E.C. Yowell, "The SWAC Design Features and Operating Experience," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 46-50, 1997.
31. G.A. Moore, "Direct Quantitative Analysis of Photomicrographs by a Digital Computer," Photo. Sci. Eng., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 152-161, May-June 1964.
32. R. Nagel, G. VanderBrug, J. Albus, and E. Lowenfeld, "Experiments in Part Acquisition Using Robot Vision," Proc. Autofact II, Robots IV Conf.,Detroit, 29 Oct.-1 Nov. 1979.
33. R.A. Kirsch, "Computer Determination of the Constituent Structure of Biological Images," Computers and Biomedical Research, vol. 4, pp. 315-328, 1971.
34. R.A. Kirsch, "Resynthesis of Biological Images From Tree-Structured Decomposition Data," F. Nake and A. Rosenfeld, eds., Graphic Languages.Amsterdam: North-HollandPublishing Co., 1972.
35. R.A. Kirsch, "Describing Art Objects to Computers," AICARC: Bull. Archives and Documentation Centers for Modern and Contemporary Art, vol. 11/12, no. 21/22, pp. 40-44, 1984/1985.
36. J.L. Kirsch and R.A. Kirsch, "Computers Viewing Artists at Work," IEEE Proc. Fifth Symp. Small Computers in the Arts, pp. 65-67,Philadelphia,5-8 Oct. 1985.
37. J.L. Kirsch and R.A. Kirsch, "The Anatomy of Painting Style: Description With Computer Rules," Leonardo, vol. 21, no. 4, Dec. 1988.
38. J.L. Kirsch, R.A. Kirsch, and S. Ressler, "Computers Viewing Artists at Work," G. Ferrate et al., eds., Syntactic and Structural Pattern Recognition, NATO ASI Series, vol. F65. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1988.
39. J.L. Kirsch and R.A. Kirsch, "Computer Grammars for the Syntactical Analysis of Paintings," I. Lavin, ed., World Art: Themes of Unity in Diversity, Acts of the 26th Int'l Congress of the History of Art.University Park: Pennsylvania State Univ. Press, 1989.
40. R.A. Kirsch, "Photogrammetric Reconstruction of Petroglyphs," Amer. Indian Rock Art, vol. 23, 1997.
41. D.S. Bright, "MacLispix: A Special Purpose Public Domain Image Analysis Program for the Macintosh," Microbeam Analysis, vol. 4, pp. 151-163, 1995.
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