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<p><it>The Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computer Technology was the dominant developer of high-speed systems in the Soviet Union from 1950 through the end of the cold war. One of its principal lines of development was the El'brus family of multiprocessors. The El'brus-1 and El'brus-2 show the strong influence of design ideas implemented in the Burroughs 700 family but exhibit a variety of innovative architectural features, particularly in the creation of a stack-based CPU capable of instruction-level parallelism and dynamic instruction scheduling. Both systems suffered from long and problematic development cycles.</it></p>

M. N. Dorojevets and P. Wolcott, "The Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computer Technology and the El'brus Family of High-Speed Computers," in IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 20, no. , pp. 4-14, 1998.
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