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Issue No.04 - Winter (1996 vol.18)
pp: 49-59
<p><it>The technological, professional, and intellectual context out of which the development of the continuous integraph or product integraph—as the immediate forerunner of Vannevar Bush's differential analyzer—evolved is outlined. In particular, the affinity between transmission line research and teaching at MIT's electrical engineering department under Bush's guidance, on the one hand, and the creation of the product integraph for evaluating integrals, which resulted from the appropriate differential equations of the transmission problems, on the other hand, is detailed. I emphasize Bush's perception of promoting engineering by easing the applied mathematics in this field as it appeared in his contribution to the development of operational circuit analysis as an appropriate engineering mathematics as well as in creating analog machinery that was inspired by the formulation of transmission line problems in terms of that very operational methods after Oliver Heaviside.</it></p>
Susann Puchta, "On the Role of Mathematics and Mathematical Knowledge in the Invention of Vannevar Bush's Early Analog Computers", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.18, no. 4, pp. 49-59, Winter 1996, doi:10.1109/85.539916
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3. A.W. Burks and A.R. Burks, "The ENIAC: First General-Purpose Electronic Computer," Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 310-389, 1981.
4. V. Bush, "Oscillating-Current Circuits: An Extension of the Theory of Generalized Angular Velocities, With Applications to the Coupled Circuit and the Artificial Transmission Line," thesis for the degree of doctor of engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Tech nology, Cambridge, Mass., Apr. 1916, MIT archives.
5. V. Bush Record of the course 651: Advanced Alternating-Current Course 1919-1920, Graduate Course, Course VI. MIT, Cambridge, Mass.
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45. K.L. Wildes and N.A. Lindgren, A Century of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT, 1882-1982.Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1985, p. 348. Project MAC had wider aims, captured in the alternative version of the acronym, Machine-Aided Cognition, for which see, e.g., Norberg and O'Neill, Transforming Computer Technology, and P.N. Edwards, The Closed World: Computers and the Politics of Discourse in Cold War America. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996.
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48. S. Hensel, "Ernst Julius Berg—Educator and Proselytizer of Heaviside's Calculus," IEEE Potentials, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 57-60, 1994.
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