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<p>Since the Netherlands lacks an indigenous computer industry, this article concentrates on the use of computing technologies. It deals specifically with the Dutch giro system, the country’s initial step toward automation in the early 1950s. Automation was achieved in 1965. Several organizational processes and the development of computer technology throughout the fifties contributed to the delay of automation and the ultimate choice and implementation of more than 20 IBM 1401 computer systems. The theme sheds light on the importance of studying how computer technology is used as well as how the technologies are developed.</p>

D. de Wit, "Caught Between Historical Experience and High Hopes: Automation at the Dutch Postal Cheque and Clearing Service, 1950-1965," in IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 17, no. , pp. 9-21, 1995.
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