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<p>This article describes the application of punched-card machinery for data processing at the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics (DCBS) between 1899 and the mid-1960s. It demonstrates that the increasing replacement of manual data processing by these machines was not stimulated primarily by their technical improvement, but by specific changes in the bureau's statistical program. Attention is paid to the influence of the labor market, organization of labor in data processing, and the establishment of a special data processing department, paving the way for the introduction of the digital computer. The development of the statistical program of the DCBS is related to its wider social context.</p>

J. v. Ende, "The Number Factory: Punched-Card Machines at the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics," in IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 16, no. , pp. 15-24, 1994.
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