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<p>This article studies the prehistory of computers at Manchester University, Scientific computation in Britain during and immediately after World War II is briefly described. Computers at Manchester University had two main initial influences: M.H.A. Newman and F.C. Williams. Biographies of these two men are given and their wartime work examined in the light of computer development at Manchester. The period from 1946 to 1948 is discussed as the start of computer research at Manchester. The article ends at the point when the Manchester "baby machine" was operational and outside interests ensured the continuation of computer science research at Manchester.</p>

M. Croarken, "The Beginnings of the Manchester Computer Phenomenon: People and Influences," in IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 15, no. , pp. 9-16, 1993.
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