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<p> Punched-card machines were in a number of ways predecessors to computers. The punched-card technique was invented in the United States in the 1880s by Herman Hollerith, who continued development for another two decades. His firm later became the main component of IBM. Only two main competitors to Hollerith emerged, Powers in the United States and Bull first in Norway and later in France. This article covers the development of the Bull machines in the Norwegian period, 1918- 1930.</p>
Lars Heide, "From Invention to Production: The Development of Punched-card Machines by F. R. Bull and K. A. Knutsen 1918-1930", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 13, no. , pp. 261-272, July-September 1991, doi:10.1109/MAHC.1991.10024
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