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<p>Over the period 1865-1920, individual fascination with new commercial computing devices transformed the reduction of scientific data in the United States. At Columbia University, arithmometers and Brunsviga calculating machines, purchased as novelties, were put to use by astronomers. At the New York Meteorological Observatory, comptometers offered a new way to average large numbers of records. By 1914, calculating machines like the Millionaire were an accepted tool at institutions like the National Bureau of Standards. Surviving artifacts and manuscripts from each of these.</p>

P. A. Kidwell, "American Scientists and Calculating Machines - From Novelty to Commonplace," in IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 12, no. , pp. 31-40, 1990.
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