Issue No. 04 - Winter (1989 vol. 11)
<p>This article focuses on the birth of the IBM France company in 1914; the proposal its directors made to buy out Bull, its main competitor; the second world war and the obstacles the company had to surmount. It also describes the opening of a scientific computing center, the arrival of the IBM 650, and the creation of the military applications department. Finally, it deals with some challenges with which IBM France was confronted during the last 20 years, most of them connected with the nationality of ifs parent company and the very nature of computing itself. This article underlines particularly its distinctive spirit that stems from the genuine code of conduct T. J. Watson gave its members.</p>
J. Vernay, "IBM France," in IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 11, no. , pp. 299-311, 1989.