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<p>By 1950 there were three influential centers of programming in Britain where working computers had been constructed: Cambridge University (the EDSAC), Manchester University (the Mark I), and the National Physical Laboratory (the Pilot ACE). At each of these centers a distinctive style of programming evolved, largely independently of the others. This paper describes how the three schools of programming influenced programming for the other stored-program computers constructed in Britain up to the year 1955. These machines included several prototype and research computers, as well as five commercially manufactured machines. The paper concludes with a comparative assessment of the three schools of programming.</p>

M. Campbell-Kelly, "The Development of Computer Programming in Britain (1945 to 1955)," in IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 4, no. , pp. 121-139, 1982.
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