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Issue No. 01 - January-March (1982 vol. 4)
ISSN: 1058-6180
pp: 35-52
<p>JOSS, the JOHNNIAC Open-Shop System, is a conversational time-sharing system developed at the Rand Corporation to demonstrate, on a small scale, the value of time-sharing and easy access to computing power for the nonprogrammer. In three computer implementations from May 1963 to the 198Os, JOSS has provided an English-like language that is easy to learn and use by trial and error at a terminal. Thus this earliest of simple on-line systems has enabled the computer novice to explore to advantage many small computational problems that might not be worth the effort in another computing environment.</p>

S. L. Marks, "JOSS: Conversational Computing for the Nonprogrammer," in IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 4, no. , pp. 35-52, 1982.
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