Issue No. 01 - January-June (2008 vol. 7)
DOI Bookmark: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/L-CA.2007.19
A. Biswas , Intel Corp., Hudson, MA
P. Racunas , Intel Corp., Hudson, MA
J. Emer , Intel Corp., Hudson, MA
S.S. Mukherjee , Intel Corp., Hudson, MA
ACE (architecturally correct execution) analysis computes AVFs (architectural vulnerability factors) of hardware structures. AVF expresses the fraction of radiation-induced transient faults that result in user-visible errors. Architects usually perform this analysis on a high-level performance model to quickly compute per-structure AVFs. If, however, low-level details of a microarchitecture are not modeled appropriately, then their effects may not be reflected in the per-structure AVFs. In this paper we refute Wang, et al.'s (2007) claim that this detail is difficult to model and imposes a practical threshold on ACE analysis that forces its estimates to have a high error margin. We show that carefully choosing a small amount of additional detail can result in a much tighter AVF bound than Wang, et al. were able to achieve in their refined ACE analysis. Even the inclusion of small details, such as read/write pointers and appropriate inter-structure dependencies, can increase the accuracy of the AVF computation by 40% or more. We argue that this is no different than modeling the IPC (instructions per cycle) of a microprocessor pipeline. A less detailed performance model will provide less accurate IPCs. AVFs are no different.
Performance analysis, Hardware, Microarchitecture, High performance computing, Microprocessors, Pipelines, Computational modeling, Protection, Target tracking
A. Biswas, P. Racunas, J. Emer and S. Mukherjee, "Computing Accurate AVFs using ACE Analysis on Performance Models: A Rebuttal," in IEEE Computer Architecture Letters, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. , 2013.