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Displaying 1-50 out of 357 total
Messages with implicit destinations as mobile agents
Found in: Proceedings of the 2nd edition on Programming systems, languages and applications based on actors, agents, and decentralized control abstractions (AGERE! '12)
By Ahmad Ahmad-Kassem, Stéphane Grumbach, Stéphane Ubéda
Issue Date:October 2012
pp. 107-118
Applications running over decentralized systems, distribute their computation on nodes/agents, which exchange data and services through messages. In many cases, the provenance of the data or service is not relevant, and applications can be optimized by cho...
     
UBIQUEST, for rapid prototyping of networking applications
Found in: Proceedings of the 16th International Database Engineering & Applications Sysmposium (IDEAS '12)
By Ahmad Ahmad-Kassem, Christine Collet, Christophe Bobineau, Etienne Dublé, Fuda Ma, Lourdes Martinez, Stéphane Grumbach, Stéphane Ubéda
Issue Date:August 2012
pp. 187-192
An UBIQUEST system provides a high level programming abstraction for rapid prototyping of heterogeneous and distributed applications in a dynamic environment. Such a system is perceived as a distributed database and the applications interact through declar...
     
General-purpose code acceleration with limited-precision analog computation
Found in: 2014 ACM/IEEE 41st International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA)
By Renee St. Amant,Amir Yazdanbakhsh,Jongse Park,Bradley Thwaites,Hadi Esmaeilzadeh,Arjang Hassibi,Luis Ceze,Doug Burger
Issue Date:June 2014
pp. 505-516
As improvements in per-transistor speed and energy efficiency diminish, radical departures from conventional approaches are becoming critical to improving the performance and energy efficiency of general-purpose processors. We propose a solution—from circu...
   
Optimizing Energy Consumption in Broker-Assisted Cyber Foraging Systems
Found in: 2014 IEEE 28th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA)
By Manjinder Nir,Ashraf Matrawy,Marc St-Hilaire
Issue Date:May 2014
pp. 576-583
In this paper, we present our work in the area of Cyber Foraging (CF), which enables mobile devices to offload heavy computations to resourceful computing nodes. The main focus of the paper is to minimize the total energy consumption across all the mobile ...
 
Improving background subtraction using Local Binary Similarity Patterns
Found in: 2014 IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV)
By Pierre-Luc St-Charles,Guillaume-Alexandre Bilodeau
Issue Date:March 2014
pp. 509-515
Most of the recently published background subtraction methods can still be classified as pixel-based, as most of their analysis is still only done using pixel-by-pixel comparisons. Few others might be regarded as spatial-based (or even spatiotemporal-based...
   
Mobile teleoperation interfaces with adjustable autonomy for personal service robots
Found in: Proceedings of the 2014 ACM/IEEE international conference on Human-robot interaction (HRI '14)
By Jörg Stückler, Max Schwarz, Sven Behnke
Issue Date:March 2014
pp. 288-289
Personal service robots require a comprehensive set of perception, control, and planning skills to perform everyday tasks autonomously. While achieving full autonomy is an ongoing research topic, first real-world applications of personal robots may come in...
     
EFAA: a companion emerges from integrating a layered cognitive architecture
Found in: Proceedings of the 2014 ACM/IEEE international conference on Human-robot interaction (HRI '14)
By Paul Verschure, Stéphane Lallée, Sytse Wierenga, Ugo Pattacini, Vasiliki Vouloutsi
Issue Date:March 2014
pp. 105-105
In this video, we present the human robot interaction generated by applying the DAC cognitive architecture on the iCub robot. We demonstrate how the robot reacts and adapts to its environment within the context a continuous interactive scenario including d...
     
Tangible needle, digital haystack: tangible interfaces for reusing media content organized by similarity
Found in: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Tangible, Embedded and Embodied Interaction (TEI '14)
By Christian Frisson, Damien Grobet, François Rocca, Mohammed El Brouzi, Rudi Giot, Samir Bouaziz, Stéphane Dupont, Sylvie Merviel, Thierry Dutoit, Willy Yvart
Issue Date:February 2014
pp. 37-38
This paper presents the design process of a desk-set tangible user interface for the navigation and manipulation of media content organized by content-based similarity with off-the-shelf/flea market devices. For intra-media navigation, a refurbished portab...
     
ASAFESSS: A Scheduler-driven Adaptive Framework for Extreme Scale Software Stacks
Found in: Proceedings of International Workshop on Adaptive Self-tuning Computing Systems (ADAPT '14)
By Andres Marquez, Benoît Meister, Guang R. Gao, Joseph B. Manzano, Tom St. John, Xiaoming Li
Issue Date:January 2014
pp. 21-23
In a context where the interaction between growingly heterogeneous dynamic hardware and sets of complex applications is intractible to model at compile-time, we acknowledge the need for a formal way to associate runtime parameter domains with software opti...
     
IT Capability Configurations for Innovation: An Empirical Study of Industrial SMEs
Found in: 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS)
By Louis Raymond,Sylvestre Uwizeyemungu,Bruno Fabi,Josee St-Pierre
Issue Date:January 2014
pp. 3939-3948
With the advent of globalization and the knowledge-based economy, industrial SMEs must constantly innovate to remain competitive. Now, an important research issue in this regard concerns the role played by IT capabilities in enabling innovation processes s...
   
Strigil: A Framework for Data Extraction in Semi-Structured Web Documents
Found in: Proceedings of International Conference on Information Integration and Web-based Applications & Services (IIWAS '13)
By Irena Holubová, Jakub Stárka, Martin Nečaský
Issue Date:December 2013
pp. 453-462
In this paper we introduce Strigil, a framework for automated data extraction. It represents an easily configurable tool that enables one to retrieve a data from textual or weak-structured documents. The paper contains description of the framework architec...
     
Video analysis of approach-avoidance behaviors of teenagers speaking with virtual agents
Found in: Proceedings of the 15th ACM on International conference on multimodal interaction (ICMI '13)
By David Antonio Gómez Jáuregui, Mahin Bailly, Stéphane Padovani, Céline Clavel, Jean-Claude Martin, Léonor Philip
Issue Date:December 2013
pp. 189-196
Analysis of non-verbal behaviors in HCI allows understanding how individuals apprehend and adapt to different situations of interaction. This seems particularly relevant when considering tasks such as speaking in a foreign language, which is known to elici...
     
OpenCL-Based Remote Offloading Framework for Trusted Mobile Cloud Computing
Found in: 2013 International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems (ICPADS)
By Heungsik Eom,Pierre St. Juste,Renato Figueiredo,Omesh Tickoo,Ramesh Illikkal,Ravishankar Iyer
Issue Date:December 2013
pp. 240-248
OpenCL has emerged as the open standard for parallel programming for heterogeneous platforms enabling a uniform framework to discover, program, and distribute parallel workloads to the diverse set of compute units in the hardware. For that reason, there ha...
 
Machine Learning-Based Runtime Scheduler for Mobile Offloading Framework
Found in: 2013 IEEE/ACM 6th International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing (UCC)
By Heungsik Eom,Pierre St. Juste,Renato Figueiredo,Omesh Tickoo,Ramesh Illikkal,Ravishankar Iyer
Issue Date:December 2013
pp. 17-25
Remote offloading techniques have been proposed to overcome the limited resources of mobile platforms by leveraging external powerful resources such as personal work-stations or cloud servers. Prior studies have primarily focused on core mechanisms for off...
 
Legal Careers for Engineers
Found in: Computer
By Brian M. Gaff,Judy St. John
Issue Date:December 2013
pp. 11-13
Engineers thinking about a career change should consider opportunities available to them as lawyers, patent agents, and expert witnesses. The Web extra at http://youtu.be/uXBS1J1gBd8 is an audio recording from the Computing and the Law column, in which the...
 
Dia de los muertos
Found in: SIGGRAPH Asia 2013 Computer Animation Festival (SA '13)
By Lindsey St. Pierre
Issue Date:November 2013
pp. 1-1
A girl visits the land of the dead.
     
Parallel sparse FFT
Found in: Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Irregular Applications: Architectures and Algorithms (IA^3 '13)
By Amik St-Cyr, Cheng Wang, Sunita Chandrasekaran, Barbara Chapman, Detlef Hohl, Mauricio Araya-Polo
Issue Date:November 2013
pp. 1-8
The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is a widely used numerical algorithm. When N input data points lead to only k << N non-zero coefficients in the transformed domain, the algorithm is clearly inefficient: the FFT performs O(NlogN) operations on N input...
     
Distributed ElGamal à la Pedersen: Application to Helios
Found in: Proceedings of the 12th ACM workshop on Workshop on privacy in the electronic society (WPES '13)
By David Galindo, Malika Izabachène, Stéphane Glondu, Véronique Cortier
Issue Date:November 2013
pp. 131-142
Real-world elections often require threshold cryptosystems so that any t out of l trustees can proceed to tallying. This is needed to protect the confidentiality of the voters' votes against curious authorities (at least t+1 trustees must collude to learn ...
     
Efficiency and precision trade-offs in graph summary algorithms
Found in: Proceedings of the 17th International Database Engineering & Applications Symposium (IDEAS '13)
By Giovanni Tummarello, Renaud Delbru, Stéphane Campinas
Issue Date:October 2013
pp. 38-47
In many applications, it is convenient to substitute a large data graph with a smaller homomorphic graph. This paper investigates approaches for summarising massive data graphs. In general, massive data graphs are processed using a shared-nothing infrastru...
     
Acoustic detection of elephant presence in noisy environments
Found in: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM international workshop on Multimedia analysis for ecological data (MAED '13)
By Angela S. Stöger, Christian Breiteneder, Matthias Zeppelzauer
Issue Date:October 2013
pp. 3-8
The automated acoustic detection of elephants is an important factor in alleviating the human-elephant conflict in Asia and Africa. In this paper, we present a method for the automated detection of elephant presence and evaluate it on a large dataset of wi...
     
An Event Based Denotational Semantics for Natural Language Queries to Data Represented in Triple Stores
Found in: 2013 IEEE Seventh International Conference on Semantic Computing (ICSC)
By Richard A. Frost,Bryan St. Amour,Randy Fortier
Issue Date:September 2013
pp. 142-145
Binary-relational and graph-based databases are more flexible than conventional relational databases because the type of data to be stored does not need to be known in advance. In many implementations of these systems the data is held in a "triple sto...
 
A bisimulation between DPLL(T) and a proof-search strategy for the focused sequent calculus
Found in: Proceedings of the Eighth ACM SIGPLAN international workshop on Logical frameworks & meta-languages: theory & practice (LFMTP '13)
By Assia Mahboubi, Mahfuza Farooque, Stéphane Graham-Lengrand
Issue Date:September 2013
pp. 3-14
We describe how the Davis-Putnam-Logemann-Loveland procedure DPLL is bisimilar to the goal-directed proof-search mechanism described by a standard but carefully chosen sequent calculus. We thus relate a procedure described as a transition system on states ...
     
Experience report: applying random testing to a base type environment
Found in: Proceedings of the 18th ACM SIGPLAN international conference on Functional programming (ICFP '13)
By Neil Toronto, Vincent St-Amour
Issue Date:September 2013
pp. 351-356
As programmers, programming in typed languages increases our confidence in the correctness of our programs. As type system designers, soundness proofs increase our confidence in the correctness of our type systems. There is more to typed languages than the...
     
Textual Similarity with a Bag-of-Embedded-Words Model
Found in: Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on the Theory of Information Retrieval (ICTIR '13)
By Florent Perronnin, Stéphane Clinchant
Issue Date:September 2013
pp. 117-120
While words in documents are generally treated as discrete entities, they can be embedded in a Euclidean space which reflects an a priori notion of similarity between them. In such a case, a text document can be viewed as a bag-of-embedded-words (BoEW): a ...
     
A Theoretical Analysis of Pseudo-Relevance Feedback Models
Found in: Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on the Theory of Information Retrieval (ICTIR '13)
By Eric Gaussier, Stéphane Clinchant
Issue Date:September 2013
pp. 6-13
Our goal in this study is to compare several widely used pseudo-relevance feedback (PRF) models and understand what explains their respective behavior. To do so, we first analyze how different PRF models behave through the characteristics of the terms they...
     
Parallel strategies for an inverse docking method
Found in: Proceedings of the 20th European MPI Users' Group Meeting (EuroMPI '13)
By Laurent Martiny, Luiz Angelo Steffenel, Manuel Dauchez, Michaël Krajecki, Romain Vasseur, Stéphanie Baud, Xavier Vigouroux
Issue Date:September 2013
pp. 253-258
Molecular docking is a widely used computational technique that allows studying structure-based interactions complexes between biological objects at the molecular scale. The purpose of the current work is to develop a set of tools that allows performing in...
     
AWARE: A video monitoring library applied to the Air Traffic Control context
Found in: 2013 10th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (AVSS)
By Guillaume Dumont,Francois Berthiaume,Louis St-Laurent,Benoit Debaque,Donald Prevost
Issue Date:August 2013
pp. 153-158
We present AWARE, a video monitoring library at the heart of a camera-based Air Traffic Control (ATC) System already deployed in several airports. The system makes use of a network of visible or thermal cameras for detection, tracking and positioning of mo...
   
Hamiltonian Walks of Phylogenetic Treespaces
Found in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics (TCBB)
By Eric Ford, Katherine St. John, Kevaughn Gordon
Issue Date:July 2013
pp. 1076-1079
We answer Bryant's combinatorial challenge on minimal walks of phylogenetic treespace under the nearest-neighbor interchange (NNI) metric. We show that the shortest path through the NNI-treespace of $(n)$-leaf trees is Hamiltonian for all $(n)$. That is, t...
     
Hamiltonian Walks of Phylogenetic Treespaces
Found in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
By Kevaughn Gordon,Eric Ford,Katherine St. John
Issue Date:July 2013
pp. 1076-1079
We answer Bryant's combinatorial challenge on minimal walks of phylogenetic treespace under the nearest-neighbor interchange (NNI) metric. We show that the shortest path through the NNI-treespace of n-leaf trees is Hamiltonian for all n. That is, there is ...
 
Semi-supervised evaluation of face recognition in videos
Found in: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Video and Image Ground Truth in Computer Vision Applications (VIGTA '13)
By Catherine Herold, Olivier Beiler, Stéphane Gentric, Valentin Biaud, Vincent Despiegel
Issue Date:July 2013
pp. 1-6
With the deployment of cameras for security control or identity verification, video streams become a common input for people tracking, behavior analysis or face recognition. Various methods have been proposed for these purposes, but their evaluation remain...
     
Querying business process models with VMQL
Found in: Proceedings of the 5th ACM SIGCHI Annual International Workshop on Behaviour Modelling - Foundations and Applications (BMFA '13)
By Harald Störrle, Vlad Acretoaie
Issue Date:July 2013
pp. 1-10
The Visual Model Query Language (VMQL) has been invented with the objectives (1) to make it easier for modelers to query models effectively, and (2) to be universally applicable to all modeling languages. In previous work, we have applied VMQL to UML, and ...
     
Publishing trajectories with differential privacy guarantees
Found in: Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Scientific and Statistical Database Management (SSDBM)
By Dongxu Shao, Kaifeng Jiang, Kian-Lee Tan, Stéphane Bressan, Thomas Kister
Issue Date:July 2013
pp. 1-12
The pervasiveness of location-acquisition technologies has made it possible to collect the movement data of individuals or vehicles. However, it has to be carefully managed to ensure that there is no privacy breach. In this paper, we investigate the proble...
     
Expensive optimization scenario: IPOP-CMA-ES with a population bound mechanism for noiseless function testbed
Found in: Proceeding of the fifteenth annual conference companion on Genetic and evolutionary computation conference companion (GECCO '13 Companion)
By Thomas Stützle, Tianjun Liao
Issue Date:July 2013
pp. 1185-1192
In this paper, we test the results from the default and tuned IPOP-CMA-ES with population bound mechanism (labeled as def and texp, respectively) [8, 9] on the expensive optimization scenario of the BBOB benchmark. In texp [9], seven parameters that direct...
     
Testing the impact of parameter tuning on a variant of IPOP-CMA-ES with a bounded maximum population size on the noiseless BBOB testbed
Found in: Proceeding of the fifteenth annual conference companion on Genetic and evolutionary computation conference companion (GECCO '13 Companion)
By Thomas Stützle, Tianjun Liao
Issue Date:July 2013
pp. 1169-1176
In this paper, we experimentally explore the influence tuned parameter settings have on an IPOP-CMA-ES variant that uses a maximum bound on the population size. We followed our earlier work, where we exposed seven parameters that control parameters of IPOP...
     
Bounding the population size of IPOP-CMA-ES on the noiseless BBOB testbed
Found in: Proceeding of the fifteenth annual conference companion on Genetic and evolutionary computation conference companion (GECCO '13 Companion)
By Thomas Stützle, Tianjun Liao
Issue Date:July 2013
pp. 1161-1168
A variant of CMA-ES that uses occasional restarts coupled with an increasing population size, which is called IPOP-CMA-ES, has shown to be a top performing algorithm on the BBOB benchmark set. In this paper, we test a mechanism that bounds the maximum size...
     
Automatic (offline) configuration of algorithms
Found in: Proceeding of the fifteenth annual conference companion on Genetic and evolutionary computation conference companion (GECCO '13 Companion)
By Manuel López-Ibáñez, Thomas Stützle
Issue Date:July 2013
pp. 893-918
The language in which evolving programs are expressed can have significant impacts on the problem-solving capabilities of a genetic programming system. These impacts stem both from the absolute computational power of the languages that are used, as elucida...
     
An analysis of post-selection in automatic configuration
Found in: Proceeding of the fifteenth annual conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation conference (GECCO '13)
By Hoong Chuin Lau, Marco A. Montes de Oca, Mauro Birattari, Thomas Stützle, Zhi Yuan
Issue Date:July 2013
pp. 1557-1564
Automated algorithm configuration methods have proven to be instrumental in deriving high-performing algorithms and such methods are increasingly often used to configure evolutionary algorithms. One major challenge in devising automatic algorithm configura...
     
A hybrid evolutionary approach with search strategy adaptation for mutiobjective optimization
Found in: Proceeding of the fifteenth annual conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation conference (GECCO '13)
By Ahmed Bounekkar, Ahmed Kafafy, Stéphane Bonnevay
Issue Date:July 2013
pp. 631-638
Hybrid evolutionary algorithms have been successfully applied to solve numerous multiobjective optimization problems (MOP). In this paper, a new hybrid evolutionary approach based on search strategy adaptation (HESSA) is presented. In HESSA, the search pro...
     
Multicore Model from Abstract Single Core Inputs
Found in: IEEE Computer Architecture Letters
By Emily Blem,Hadi Esmaeilzadeh,Renee St. Amant,Karthikeyan Sankaralingam,Doug Burger
Issue Date:July 2013
pp. 59-62
This paper describes a first order multicore model to project a tighter upper bound on performance than previous Amdahl's Law based approaches. The speedup over a known baseline is a function of the core performance, microarchitectural features, applicatio...
 
Extending dataflow programs with throughput properties
Found in: Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Many-core Embedded Systems (MES '13)
By Kevin Marquet, Lionel Morel, Manuel Selva, Stéphane Frénot
Issue Date:June 2013
pp. 54-57
In the context of multi-core processors and the trend toward many-core, dataflow programming can be used as a solution to the parallelization problem. By decoupling computation from communication, this paradigm naturally exposes parallelism in several ways...
     
Flights in my hands: coherence concerns in designing strip'tic, a tangible space for air traffic controllers
Found in: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '13)
By Catherine Letondal, Christophe Hurter, Jean-Luc Vinot, Rémi Lesbordes, Stéphane Conversy
Issue Date:April 2013
pp. 2175-2184
We reflect upon the design of a paper-based tangible interactive space to support air traffic control. We have observed, studied, prototyped and discussed with controllers a new mixed interaction system based on Anoto, video projection, and tracking. Start...
     
Paléo: a collaborative system for social conciliation
Found in: CHI '13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI EA '13)
By Hugo Savoie, Mathieu Theriault, Stéphanie Turgeon-Girard, Tony Aubé
Issue Date:April 2013
pp. 2609-2614
Québec City's Saint-Roch District (Canada) is going through an urban and social transformation period. Over the years, the various efforts aimed at revitalizing the district contributed to the creation of a significant divide between the different soc...
     
YAPA: A Generic Tool for Computing Intruder Knowledge
Found in: ACM Transactions on Computational Logic (TOCL)
By Mathieu Baudet, Stéphanie Delaune, Véronique Cortier
Issue Date:February 2013
pp. 1-32
Reasoning about the knowledge of an attacker is a necessary step in many formal analyses of security protocols. In the framework of the applied pi-calculus, as in similar languages based on equational logics, knowledge is typically expressed by two relatio...
     
Power challenges may end the multicore era
Found in: Communications of the ACM
By Doug Burger, Emily Blem, Hadi Esmaeilzadeh, Karthikeyan Sankaralingam, Renée St. Amant
Issue Date:February 2013
pp. 93-102
Starting in 2004, the microprocessor industry has shifted to multicore scaling---increasing the number of cores per die each generation---as its principal strategy for continuing performance growth. Many in the research community believe that this exponent...
     
Walks on SPR Neighborhoods
Found in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics (TCBB)
By Alan Joseph J. Caceres, Jinnie Lee, Juan Castillo, Katherine St. John
Issue Date:January 2013
pp. 236-239
A nearest-neighbor-interchange (NNI)-walk is a sequence of unrooted phylogenetic trees, $(T_1, T_2, \ldots, T_k)$ where each consecutive pair of trees differs by a single NNI move. We give tight bounds on the length of the shortest NNI-walks that visit all...
     
Walks on SPR Neighborhoods
Found in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
By Alan Joseph J. Caceres,Juan Castillo,Jinnie Lee,Katherine St. John
Issue Date:January 2013
pp. 236-239
A nearest-neighbor-interchange (NNI)-walk is a sequence of unrooted phylogenetic trees, T 1 ,T 2 , . ,T k where each consecutive pair of trees differs by a single NNI move. We give tight bounds on the length of the shortest NNI-walks that visit all trees i...
 
On efficiency of unison
Found in: Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Theoretical Aspects of Dynamic Distributed Systems (TADDS '12)
By Franck Petit, Stéphane Devismes
Issue Date:December 2012
pp. 20-25
In this paper, we address the unison problem. We consider the self-stabilizing algorithm proposed by Boulinier et al. We exhibit a bound on the step complexity of its stabilization time. In more details, the stabilization time of this algorithm is at most ...
     
Automated home network troubleshooting with device collaboration
Found in: Proceedings of the 2012 ACM conference on CoNEXT student workshop (CoNEXT Student '12)
By Diana Joumblatt, Jaideep Chandrashekar, Renata Teixeira, Stéphane Wustner
Issue Date:December 2012
pp. 61-62
Home networks are more and more diverse. Devices become increasingly sophisticated and end-users become more oblivious of the underlying network and the inherent complexity that lies underneath. This paper outlines a thesis which will design and build a sy...
     
Applicability of real-time schedulability analysis on a software radio protocol
Found in: Proceedings of the 2012 ACM conference on High integrity language technology (HILT '12)
By Bourdellès Michel, Frank Singhoff, Shuai Li, Stéphane Rubini
Issue Date:December 2012
pp. 81-94
In this paper, we present our experience on integrating timing constraint verification and analysis, by using the real-time scheduling theory, in an industrial context. The verification process has been integrated into a design flow at THALES Communication...
     
The development and internal assessment of a high-resolution, non-proprietary, stereo-photogrammetric setup for hydraulic experiments
Found in: Proceedings of the 27th Conference on Image and Vision Computing New Zealand (IVCNZ '12)
By Edwin Chan, Heide Friedrich, Patrice Delmas, Stéphane Bertin
Issue Date:November 2012
pp. 515-520
Remote sensing of riverine gravel-beds has been shown to be fundamental to derive a theoretically driven definition of the hydraulic roughness and to understand the complex processes at the sediment-water interface. Commonly, 2D gravel-bed topography was r...
     
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