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Displaying 1-50 out of 138 total
Distributed Framework for Electronic Democracy in Smart Cities
Found in: Computer
By Jesus Cano,Roberto Hernandez,Salvador Ros
Issue Date:October 2014
pp. 65-71
Architectural modules based on dual citizen and government participation platforms provide an economically viable way to implement, standardize, and scale services and information exchange--functions essential to citizens' participation in a smart city dem...
 
Adaptive Selection of Cache Indexing Bits for Removing Conflict Misses
Found in: IEEE Transactions on Computers
By Alberto Ros,Polychronis Xekalakis,Marcelo Cintra,Manuel Acacio,Jose Garcia
Issue Date:August 2014
pp. 1
The design of cache memories is a crucial part of the design cycle of a modern processor, since they are able to bridge the performance gap between the processor and the memory. Unfortunately, caches with low degrees of associativity suffer a large amount ...
 
Behavioral accommodation towards a dance robot tutor
Found in: Proceedings of the 2014 ACM/IEEE international conference on Human-robot interaction (HRI '14)
By Alexandre Coninx, Georgios Patsis, Hichem Sahli, Raquel Ros, Valentin Enescu, Yiannis Demiris
Issue Date:March 2014
pp. 278-279
We report first results on children adaptive behavior towards a dance tutoring robot. We can observe that children behavior rapidly evolves through few sessions in order to accommodate with the robotic tutor rhythm and instructions.
     
Effects of social presence and social role on help-seeking and learning
Found in: Proceedings of the 2014 ACM/IEEE international conference on Human-robot interaction (HRI '14)
By Carolyn Rosé, Iris Howley, Kotaro Hayashi, Takayuki Kanda
Issue Date:March 2014
pp. 415-422
The unique social presence of robots can be leveraged in learning situations to reduce student evaluation anxiety, while still providing instructional guidance on multiple levels of communication. Furthermore, social role of the instructor can also impact ...
     
Triggering effective social support for online groups
Found in: ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems (TiiS)
By Carolyn P. Rosé, Rohit Kumar
Issue Date:January 2014
pp. 1-32
Conversational agent technology is an emerging paradigm for creating a social environment in online groups that is conducive to effective teamwork. Prior work has demonstrated advantages in terms of learning gains and satisfaction scores when groups learni...
     
Can We Trust Our Results? A Mapping Study on Data Quality
Found in: 2013 20th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference (APSEC)
By Marshima Mohd Rosli,Ewan Tempero,Andrew Luxton-Reilly
Issue Date:December 2013
pp. 116-123
Background: The quality of data sets used in software engineering research is of the utmost importance. To ensure credibility of results obtained from use of data sets, the quality of the data must be examined. Objective: This study provides an overview of...
 
Tropical Wood Species Recognition System Based on Gabor Filter as Image Multiplier
Found in: 2013 International Conference on Signal-Image Technology & Internet-Based Systems (SITIS)
By Rubiyah Yusof,Nenny Ruthfalydia Rosli
Issue Date:December 2013
pp. 737-743
The main problem in wood species recognition system is the lack of discriminative features of the texture images. Some of the wood species have similar patterns with others and some have different patterns even though they are of the same species. Moreover...
 
Temporal-Aware Mechanism to Detect Private Data in Chip Multiprocessors
Found in: 2013 42nd International Conference on Parallel Processing (ICPP)
By Alberto Ros,Blas Cuesta,Maria E. Gomez,Antonio Robles,Jose Duato
Issue Date:October 2013
pp. 562-571
Most of the data referenced by sequential and parallel applications running in current chip multiprocessors are referenced by only one thread and can be considered as private data. A lot of recent proposals leverage this observation to improve many aspects...
 
Online laboratories as a cloud service developed by students
Found in: 2013 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE)
By R. Pastor,R. Hernandez,S. Ros,D. Sanchez,A. Caminero,A. Robles,L. Tobarra,M. Castro,G. Diaz,E. Sancristobal,M. Tawfik
Issue Date:October 2013
pp. 1081-1086
On-line laboratories (virtual or remote) are widely used in experimental engineering subjects as part of the learning process. In order to develop these laboratories, a development framework called RELATED (Remote Laboratories exTendED) is used by the Comm...
   
Towards an adaptive system for the evaluation of network services
Found in: 2013 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE)
By Antonio Robles-Gomez,Salvador Ros,Roberto Hernandez,Llanos Tobarra,Agustin C. Caminero,Rafael Pastor,Miguel Rodriguez-Artacho,Manuel Castro,Elio SanCristobal,Mohamed Tawfik
Issue Date:October 2013
pp. 1011-1017
This paper presents a new educational system to automatically adapt the evaluation activities to the students' needs in the context of Higher Engineering Education. As an example, a subject focused on the configuration of network services has been chosen t...
   
Packing and reusing virtual web laboratories as Sharable Content Object in wide range of educational fields
Found in: 2013 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE)
By I. Bellver,E. Sancristobal,G. Diaz,S. Ros,J. V. Miguez,N. Oliva,A. Colmenar,R. Hernandez,M. Castro
Issue Date:October 2013
pp. 789-794
One of the key issues in the education field is the acquisition of skills. This practical knowledge was usually acquired through traditional labs or standalone simulation programs. The World Wide Web and the advance in web programming language have allowed...
   
An Ontology of the Worldview of Islam to Annotate Islamic Texts Digital Archives
Found in: 2013 International Conference on Culture and Computing (Culture Computing)
By Julien Bourdon,Muhammad Syukri Bin Rosli
Issue Date:September 2013
pp. 216-217
Magazines and newspapers written in Jawi, an Arabic script used to write Malay until the late 50's, provided an active arena for discussions. In order to understand what happened in this era, we started to provide these in digital form. However, it is diff...
 
Wireless Multi-channel Quasi-digital Tactile Sensing Glove-Based System
Found in: 2013 Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD)
By Paolo Motto Ros,Marco Crepaldi,Alberto Bonanno,Danilo Demarchi
Issue Date:September 2013
pp. 673-680
The design of a wireless data-glove is introduced in this paper, the aim is to provide an effective and complete solution wherever a tactile sensing system has to be integrated to correctly interact with the surrounding environment (e.g., astronaut's extra...
 
A Physical-Aware Abstraction Flow for Efficient Design-Space Exploration of a Wireless Body Area Network Application
Found in: 2013 Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD)
By M. Crepaldi,P. Motto Ros,D. Demarchi,J. Buckley,B. OFlynn,D. Quaglia
Issue Date:September 2013
pp. 1005-1012
This paper presents abstraction techniques and modeling approaches to include physical-level antenna and receiver performance effects in a system-level network simulation for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN). The simulation platform is based on SystemC w...
 
PS-cache: An energy-efficient cache design for chip multiprocessors
Found in: 2013 22nd International Conference on Parallel Architectures and Compilation Techniques (PACT)
By Joan J. Valls,Alberto Ros,Julio Sahuquillo,Maria E. Gomez
Issue Date:September 2013
pp. 407
As silicon resources become increasingly abundant, core counts grow rapidly in successive chip-multiprocessors (CMP) generations. Parallel workloads represent an important segment for current and future CMPs mainly when many-core processors are considered....
   
A Physical-Aware Abstraction Flow for Efficient Design-Space Exploration of a Wireless Body Area Network Application
Found in: 2013 Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD)
By M. Crepaldi,P. Motto Ros,D. Demarchi,J. Buckley,B. OFlynn,D. Quaglia
Issue Date:September 2013
pp. 1005-1012
This paper presents abstraction techniques and modeling approaches to include physical-level antenna and receiver performance effects in a system-level network simulation for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN). The simulation platform is based on SystemC w...
 
Wireless Multi-channel Quasi-digital Tactile Sensing Glove-Based System
Found in: 2013 Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD)
By Paolo Motto Ros,Marco Crepaldi,Alberto Bonanno,Danilo Demarchi
Issue Date:September 2013
pp. 673-680
The design of a wireless data-glove is introduced in this paper, the aim is to provide an effective and complete solution wherever a tactile sensing system has to be integrated to correctly interact with the surrounding environment (e.g., astronaut's extra...
 
Open Service-Oriented Platforms for Personal Learning Environments
Found in: IEEE Internet Computing
By Salvador Ros,Roberto Hernandez,Antonio Robles-Gomez,Agustin C. Caminero,Llanos Tobarra,Elio Sancristobal Ruiz
Issue Date:July 2013
pp. 26-31
Learning management systems (LMSs) are software systems for administrating, tracking, and reporting on e-learning programs. The authors' next-generation LMS provides a personal learning environment (PLE) in which LMS functions are integrated into a context...
 
A new perspective for efficient virtual-cache coherence
Found in: Proceedings of the 40th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA '13)
By Alberto Ros, Stefanos Kaxiras
Issue Date:June 2013
pp. 535-546
Coherent shared virtual memory (cSVM) is highly coveted for heterogeneous architectures as it will simplify programming across different cores and manycore accelerators. In this context, virtual L1 caches can be used to great advantage, e.g., saving energy...
     
Overcoming performance collapse for 100Gbps cyber security
Found in: Proceedings of the first workshop on Changing landscapes in HPC security (CLHS '13)
By Alan Commike, Bob Rotsted, Jordi Ros-Giralt
Issue Date:June 2013
pp. 15-22
In this paper, we present a series of performance tests carried out on R-Scope Dominate-T (RDT), a 1U network security appliance configured with four Tilera Gx-36 processors and with an aggregated network IO capacity of 160Gbps. RDT is optimized with sever...
     
FaRNet: fast recognition of high multi-dimensional network traffic patterns
Found in: Proceedings of the ACM SIGMETRICS/international conference on Measurement and modeling of computer systems (SIGMETRICS '13)
By Ignasi Paredes-Oliva, Pere Barlet-Ros, Xenofontas Dimitropoulos
Issue Date:June 2013
pp. 355-356
Extracting knowledge from big network traffic data is a matter of foremost importance for multiple purposes ranging from trend analysis or network troubleshooting to capacity planning or traffic classification. An extremely useful approach to profile traff...
     
Determination of Sustainable Land Potential Based on Priority Ranking: Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA) Technique
Found in: 2013 13th International Conference on Computational Science and its Applications (ICCSA)
By M. N. M. Reba,A. Z. Rosli,M. A. Makhfuz,N. S. Sabarudin,N. H. Roslan
Issue Date:June 2013
pp. 212-218
Advancement in remote sensing technology and geographic information system (GIS) provides an effective tool for monitoring the change of environment in urban areas. At the same time it is very useful for planning, managing and developing the sustainable ur...
 
Real-Time Model-Based Rigid Object Pose Estimation and Tracking Combining Dense and Sparse Visual Cues
Found in: 2013 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)
By Karl Pauwels,Leonardo Rubio,Javier Diaz,Eduardo Ros
Issue Date:June 2013
pp. 2347-2354
We propose a novel model-based method for estimating and tracking the six-degrees-of-freedom (6DOF) pose of rigid objects of arbitrary shapes in real-time. By combining dense motion and stereo cues with sparse key point correspondences, and by feeding back...
 
Scan detection under sampling: a new perspective
Found in: Computer
By I. Paredes-Oliva,P. Barlet-Ros,J. Sole-Pareta
Issue Date:April 2013
pp. 38-44
In tests using the same fraction of packets for comparison, packet sampling outperformed flow sampling for scan detection, while both selective sampling and a proposed extension that uses significantly less resources were superior to either of these techni...
 
Increasing the Effectiveness of Directory Caches by Avoiding the Tracking of Noncoherent Memory Blocks
Found in: IEEE Transactions on Computers
By Blas Cuesta,Alberto Ros,María E. Gómez,Antonio Robles,José Duato
Issue Date:March 2013
pp. 482-495
A key aspect in the design of efficient multiprocessor systems is the cache coherence protocol. Although directory-based protocols constitute the most scalable approach, the limited size of the directory caches together with the growing size of systems may...
 
HALO: haskell to logic through denotational semantics
Found in: Proceedings of the 40th annual ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT symposium on Principles of programming languages (POPL '13)
By Dan Rosén, Dimitrios Vytiniotis, Koen Claessen, Simon Peyton Jones
Issue Date:January 2013
pp. 431-442
Even well-typed programs can go wrong in modern functional languages, by encountering a pattern-match failure, or simply returning the wrong answer. An increasingly-popular response is to allow programmers to write contracts that express semantic propertie...
     
Scalable Cyber-Security for Terabit Cloud Computing
Found in: 2012 SC Companion: High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis (SCC)
By J. Ros-Giralt,P. Szilagyi,R. Lethin
Issue Date:November 2012
pp. 1607-1616
This paper addresses the problem of scalable cyber-security using a cloud computing architecture. Scalability is treated in two contexts: (1) performance and power efficiency and (2) degree of cyber security-relevant information detected by the cyber-secur...
 
Discovering habits of effective online support group chatrooms
Found in: Proceedings of the 17th ACM international conference on Supporting group work (GROUP '12)
By Carolyn Penstein Rosé, Elijah Mayfield, Miaomiao Wen, Mitch Golant
Issue Date:October 2012
pp. 263-272
For users of online support groups, prior research has suggested that a positive social environment is a key enabler of coping. Typically, demonstrating such claims about social interaction would be approached through the lens of sentiment analysis. In thi...
     
Practical experiences on building structured remote and virtual laboratories from the student's point of view
Found in: 2012 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE)
By Rafael Pastor,Daniel Sanchez,Nourdine Aliane,Roberto Hernandez,Antonio Robles-Gomez,Agustin Caminero,Salvador Ros,Gabriel Diaz,Manuel Castro
Issue Date:October 2012
pp. 1-6
Nowadays, the use of remote laboratories is a common feature in order to get students involved in practical experiences. This is particularly important in distance learning environment. The regular practice is to develop a particular laboratory, required b...
 
Work in progress: Extending a LMS with social capabilities: Integrating Moodle into Facebook
Found in: 2012 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE)
By A. C. Caminero,S. Ros,A. Robles-Gomez,Li. Tobarra,R. Hernandez,R. Pastor,M. Rodriguez-Artacho,E. San Cristobal,S. Martin,M. Tawfik
Issue Date:October 2012
pp. 1-2
Merging a Learning Management System (LMS) and a social network has social advantages for students. Among others, students can show off their achievements among their acquaintances, which in turn improves their social leadership and self-esteem. This is sp...
 
Using Heterogeneous Networks to Improve Energy Efficiency in Direct Coherence Protocols for Many-Core CMPs
Found in: 2012 24th International Symposium on Computer Architecture and High Performance Computing (SBAC-PAD)
By Alberto Ros,Ricardo Fernandez-Pascual,Manuel E. Acacio
Issue Date:October 2012
pp. 43-50
Direct coherence protocols have been recently proposed as an alternative to directory-based protocols to keep cache coherence in many-core CMPs. Differently from directory-based protocols, in direct coherence the responsible for providing the requested dat...
 
PS-Dir: a scalable two-level directory cache
Found in: Proceedings of the 21st international conference on Parallel architectures and compilation techniques (PACT '12)
By Alberto Ros, Joan J. Valls, José Duato, Julio Sahuquillo, María E. Gómez
Issue Date:September 2012
pp. 451-452
As the number of cores increases in both incoming and future chip multiprocessors, coherence protocols must address novel hardware structures in order to scale in terms of performance, power, and area. It is well known that most blocks accessed by parallel...
     
Complexity-effective multicore coherence
Found in: Proceedings of the 21st international conference on Parallel architectures and compilation techniques (PACT '12)
By Alberto Ros, Stefanos Kaxiras
Issue Date:September 2012
pp. 241-252
Much of the complexity and overhead (directory, state bits, invalidations) of a typical directory coherence implementation stems from the effort to make it "invisible" even to the strongest memory consistency model. In this paper, we show that a much simpl...
     
Reducing user linguistic variability in speech interaction through lexical and syntactic priming
Found in: Proceedings of the 30th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics (ECCE '12)
By Christine Ros, Dominique Knutsen, François Rigalleau, Ludovic Le Bigot, Manuel Gimenes, Margot Poletti, Philippe Bretier
Issue Date:August 2012
pp. 160-167
Motivation -- To reduce user linguistic variability in human-system interaction. Research approach -- An experiment was conducted in which 72 participants interacted over the phone with a simulated natural language dialogue system. The main manipulation co...
     
ASCIB: adaptive selection of cache indexing bits for removing conflict misses
Found in: Proceedings of the 2012 ACM/IEEE international symposium on Low power electronics and design (ISLPED '12)
By Alberto Ros, José M. García, Manuel E. Acacio, Marcelo Cintra, Polychronis Xekalakis
Issue Date:July 2012
pp. 51-56
The design of cache memories is a crucial part of the design cycle of a modern processor. Unfortunately, caches with low degrees of associativity suffer a large amount of conflict misses, while high-associative caches consume more power per access. We prop...
     
Comparing onset detection methods based on spectral features
Found in: Proceedings of the Workshop on Open Source and Design of Communication (OSDOC '12)
By Carlos Rosão, David Martins de Matos, Ricardo Ribeiro
Issue Date:June 2012
pp. 71-78
Onset Detection, the quest for finding transient regions in the audio signal, has been an active research subject as note onset detection is commonly used as a first step in high-level music processing techniques. In this paper, we review several Onset Det...
     
Extending Magny-Cours Cache Coherence
Found in: IEEE Transactions on Computers
By A. Ros,B. Cuesta,R. Fernandez-Pascual,M. E. Gomez,M. E. Acacio,A. Robles,J. M. Garcia,J. Duato
Issue Date:May 2012
pp. 593-606
One cost-effective way to meet the increasing demand for larger high-performance shared-memory servers is to build clusters with off-the-shelf processors connected with low-latency point-to-point interconnections like HyperTransport. Unfortunately, HyperTr...
 
Waveform Design for Improved Range and Doppler Resolution in Radar
Found in: Intelligent Systems, Modelling and Simulation, International Conference on
By Farid Ghani,Siti Julia Binti Rosli,Alif Hasmani Abd. Ghani,R. Badlishah Ahmed
Issue Date:February 2012
pp. 247-251
The choice of a suitable transmit waveform is an important problem in radar design. This is so because the waveform controls resolution and clutter performance and also bears heavily on the system cost. Theoretical studies which provide the basis for techn...
 
Preliminary Study: The Comparison between Hands-Free and Handheld 3G Mobile Phone on Alpha Brainwave
Found in: Intelligent Systems, Modelling and Simulation, International Conference on
By Ros Shilawani S. Abdul Kadir,Noor Atisha Aliyasak,Zunairah Hj Murat,Rozita Jailani
Issue Date:February 2012
pp. 197-202
This paper presents a preliminary study on the comparison between hands-free and handheld 3G mobile phone on alpha brainwave signal for thirty samples. The resting alpha brainwave activities were recorded using EEG for three stages which are before, during...
 
Overview of Mobile IPv6 Security
Found in: Intelligent Systems, Modelling and Simulation, International Conference on
By Amirhosein Moravejosharieh,Hero Modares,Rosli Salleh
Issue Date:February 2012
pp. 584-587
Mobile IP enables a mobile node to be recognized via a single IP address even though the node may travel from one network to another. Despite reposition between different networks, connectivity at different positions is attained continuously with no user i...
 
Overview of Handover Latency and Resource Consumption in Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 Protocol and GPS Approaches
Found in: Intelligent Systems, Modelling and Simulation, International Conference on
By Amirhosein Moravejosharieh,Rosli Salleh,Hero Modares
Issue Date:February 2012
pp. 579-583
IP-Mobility protocols provides robust and integrate connectivity while the Mobile Node (MN) is moving among wireless networks. Therefore running certain procedures are needed to perform the complete handover procedure which results in handover latency and ...
 
The Comparison between Listening to Al-Quran and Listening to Classical Music on the Brainwave Signal for the Alpha Band
Found in: Intelligent Systems, Modelling and Simulation, International Conference on
By Noor Ashikin Zulkurnaini,Ros Shilawani S. Abdul Kadir,Zunairah Hj Murat,Roshakimah Mohd Isa
Issue Date:February 2012
pp. 181-186
This research investigates and compares the effects of listening to Al-Quran and classical music on human brain wave using EEG. The EEG signal was recorded for three states, which are before, during and after listening to Al-Quran and classical music. 28 h...
 
DAPSCO: Distance-aware partially shared cache organization
Found in: ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization (TACO)
By Jose M. Garcia, Ricardo Fernandez-Pascual, Alberto Ros, Antonio Garcia-Guirado
Issue Date:January 2012
pp. 1-19
Many-core tiled CMP proposals often assume a partially shared last level cache (LLC) since this provides a good compromise between access latency and cache utilization. In this paper, we propose a novel way to map memory addresses to LLC banks that takes i...
     
Wireless Network Security Using Elliptic Curve Cryptography
Found in: Informatics and Computational Intelligence, International Conference on
By Hero Modares,Amirhossein Moravejosharieh,Rosli Salleh
Issue Date:December 2011
pp. 348-351
As wireless sensor networks continue to grow, so does the need for effective security mechanisms. Sensor networks may interact with sensitive data and/or operate in hostile unattended environments, it needs to be secured. It is an important challenge to fi...
 
Overview of Latest Approaches in Heterogeneous and Mobile IPv6 Homogeneous Wireless Networks Based on Location-Assisted Information
Found in: Informatics and Computational Intelligence, International Conference on
By Amirhosein Moravejosharieh,Rosli Salleh,Hero Modares
Issue Date:December 2011
pp. 343-347
Providing seamless mobility among networks either heterogeneous or homogeneous has become one of the major challenging issues in next generation of wireless networks. Recently, within the past decade, researchers and IP-mobility communities have been inves...
 
Child-robot interaction in the wild: advice to the aspiring experimenter
Found in: Proceedings of the 13th international conference on multimodal interfaces (ICMI '11)
By Alessio Giusti, Clara Pozzi, Marco Nalin, Paul Baxter, Rachel Wood, Raquel Ros, Rosemarijn Looije, Tony Belpaeme, Yannis Demiris
Issue Date:November 2011
pp. 335-342
We present insights gleaned from a series of child-robot interaction experiments carried out in a hospital paediatric department. Our aim here is to share good practice in experimental design and lessons learned about the implementation of systems for soci...
     
Attentional gradient for crossmodal proximal-distal tactile cueing of visual spatial attention
Found in: ACM Transactions on Applied Perception (TAP)
By Hong Z. Tan, Rob Gray, Robert W. Proctor, Roslizawaty Mohd Rosli
Issue Date:November 2011
pp. 1-12
Past studies have established a crossmodal spatial attentional link among vision, audition, and touch. The present study examined the dependence of visual attention on the distance between a distal visual target (a changing element among static distractors...
     
Automatic assessment for the e-learning of the network services in the context of the EHEA
Found in: Frontiers in Education, Annual
By Antonio Robles-Gomez,Llanos Tobarra,Salvador Ros,Roberto Hernandez,Agustin C. Caminero,Rafael Pastor
Issue Date:October 2011
pp. F4C-1-F4C-6
This work presents a new system for the automatic assessment of practical activities in the context of the EHEA. A subject focused on the configuration of network services has been chosen to implement the new automatic evaluation platform. Unlike tradition...
 
Cloud-based e-learning infrastructures with load forecasting mechanism based on Exponential Smoothing: A use case
Found in: Frontiers in Education, Annual
By Agustin C. Caminero,Salvador Ros,Roberto Hernandez,Antonio Robles-Gomez,Rafael Pastor
Issue Date:October 2011
pp. S3C-1-S3C-6
The development of cloud technologies allows the implementation of scalable, versatile, and customized systems, constructed on-demand. This allows more efficient use of computing resources, improving the revenue of the system and enhancing the Quality of S...
 
A video-message evaluation tool integrated in the UNED e-learning platform
Found in: Frontiers in Education, Annual
By Rafael Pastor,Roberto Hernandez,Salvador Ros,Antonio Robles-Gomez,Agustin Caminero,Manuel Castro,Rocael Hernandez
Issue Date:October 2011
pp. F3C-1-F3C-6
Use of multimedia services has become very important in learning process. This is due to the traditional approach of document based assignments not provide any feature which allows to evaluate some basic competences (oral communications skill, for example)...
 
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