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Displaying 1-45 out of 45 total
The Limitations of Limitations
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By John M. Flach, Robert R. Hoffman
Issue Date:January 2003
pp. 94-96, c3
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A Rose by Any Other Name.Would Probably Be Given an Acronym
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman, Paul J. Feltovich, Kenneth M. Ford, David D. Woods, Gary Klein, Anne Feltovich
Issue Date:July 2002
pp. 72-80
No summary available.
 
Influencing versus Informing Design, Part 1: A Gap Analysis
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman, Steven V. Deal
Issue Date:September 2008
pp. 78-81
The collaboration of cognitive systems engineers with systems engineers is motivated by the goal of creating human-centered systems. However, there can be a gap in this collaboration. In presentations at professional meetings about cognitive systems engine...
 
Human Total Cost of Ownership: The Penny Foolish Principle at Work
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Wayne Zachary, Robert R. Hoffman, Kelly Neville, Jennifer Fowlkes
Issue Date:March 2007
pp. 88-92
Typical procurement processes rarely result in intelligent, human-centered technologies. All too often, we see instances of the Penny Foolish Principle of complex cognitive systems:
 
Knowledge Management Revisited
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman, David Ziebell, Stephen M. Fiore, Irma Becerra-Fernandez
Issue Date:May 2008
pp. 84-88
A number of social, economic, technological, and scientific trends have led to the emergence of communities of practice centered on the notion of the knowledge-based organization. Workforce mobility and its implications for transfer of expertise have made ...
 
Human-Centered Computing: Thinking In and Out of the Box
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman, Patrick J. Hayes, Kenneth M. Ford
Issue Date:September 2001
pp. 76-78
No summary available.
 
Envisioning Desirements
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman,Michael J. McCloskey
Issue Date:July 2013
pp. 82-89
The conceptual distinction between requirements and desirements was introduced in a previous installment; here, the authors expand on the concept and specify a methodology for eliciting desirements in support of the development of intelligent systems.
 
Principles for Human-Centered Interaction Design, Part 1: Performative Systems
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Thomas C. Eskridge,David Still,Robert R. Hoffman
Issue Date:July 2014
pp. 88-94
This article discusses principles underlying the design of human-centered interfaces, using the specific example of the OZ cockpit display, which has no traditional dials or gauges.
 
Trust in Automation
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman,Matthew Johnson,Jeffrey M. Bradshaw,Al Underbrink
Issue Date:January 2013
pp. 84-88
This essay focuses on trust in the automation within macrocognitive work systems. The authors emphasize the dynamics of trust. They consider numerous different meanings or kinds of trust, and different modes of operation in which trust dynamics play a role...
 
Command and Control Requirements for Moving-Target Defense
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Marco Carvalho,Jeffrey M. Bradshaw,Larry Bunch,Tom Eskridge,Paul J. Feltovich,Robert R. Hoffman,Daniel Kidwell
Issue Date:May 2012
pp. 79-85
The macrocognitive workplace is constantly changing, and a work system can never match its environment completely; there are always gaps in fitness because the work is itself a moving target. This article looks at a domain where the workplace is a moving t...
 
Beyond Simon's Slice: Five Fundamental Trade-Offs that Bound the Performance of Macrocognitive Work Systems
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman,David D. Woods
Issue Date:November 2011
pp. 67-71
Macrocognitive work systems are complex adaptive systems designed to support near-continuous interdependencies among humans and intelligent machines to carry out joint cognitive work that includes functions such as sensemaking, replanning, mental projectio...
 
Franchise Experts
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman,David Ziebell,Paul J. Feltovich,Brian M. Moon,Steven M. Fiore
Issue Date:September 2011
pp. 72-77
When expert systems as a field or paradigm was morphing into intelligent systems, it was recognized that cognitive task analysis was critical in the design of new technologies. Furthermore, as a part of cognitive task analysis, it is crucial to conduct som...
 
Beyond Cooperative Robotics: The Central Role of Interdependence in Coactive Design
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Matthew Johnson, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, Paul J. Feltovich, Robert R. Hoffman, Catholijn Jonker, Birna van Riemsdijk, Maarten Sierhuis
Issue Date:May 2011
pp. 81-88
<p>As automation becomes more sophisticated, the nature of its interaction with people will need to change in profound ways. Many approaches to designing more team-like cooperation between humans and machines have been proposed&#x2014;most recent...
 
Metrics, Metrics, Metrics, Part 2: Universal Metrics?
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman,Peter A. Hancock,Jeffrey M. Bradshaw
Issue Date:November 2010
pp. 93-96, c3
This second essay in the series focuses on the
 
The Dynamics of Trust in Cyberdomains
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman, John D. Lee, David D. Woods, Nigel Shadbolt, Janet Miller, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw
Issue Date:November 2009
pp. 5-11
<p>In the game of cybersecurity catch-up, clever hackers repeatedly find some new malware scheme, and security people then come up with a new software or hardware patch. Although attempts to improve software and hardware must continue, what else migh...
 
Once More, Into the Soup
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Pieter Jan Stappers, Robert R. Hoffman
Issue Date:September 2009
pp. 9-13
<p>The proliferation of
 
Accelerated Learning (?)
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman, Douglas O. Norman, Juris Vagners
Issue Date:May 2009
pp. 82-c3
In recent years researchers have used various phrases to distinguish types of systems, including
 
Accelerated Learning (?)
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman, Paul J. Feltovich, Stephen M. Fiore, Gary Klein, David Ziebell
Issue Date:March 2009
pp. 18-22
Accelerated learning is the attempt to reduce the time needed to achieve proficiency and, in particular, accelerate the advance from the apprentice to journeyman level and from the journeyman to expert level. Given what we know about expertise, the applica...
 
Influencing versus Informing Design, Part 2: Macrocognitive Modeling
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman
Issue Date:November 2008
pp. 86-c3
Cognitive-systems engineers study the cognitive work conducted in sociotechnical contexts and, from that understanding, provide guidance to software engineers. The previous essay in this department discussed how there can be a gap—the guidance from cogniti...
 
The Procurement Woes Revisited
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Kelly Neville, Robert R. Hoffman, Charlotte Linde, William C. Elm, Jennifer Fowlkes
Issue Date:January 2008
pp. 72-75
Cognitive systems engineers, ethnographers, and many other advocates of human-centered computing must show that intelligent technologies--those designed to interact with humans or play a role in the cognitive work conducted in sociotechnical work systems--...
 
Perceptual (Re)learning: A Leverage Point for Human-Centered Computing
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman, Stephen M. Fiore
Issue Date:May 2007
pp. 79-83
This column explores the conjunction of two facts: (1) experts can perceive things that are invisible to the novice and (2) it takes a decade or more for someone to become an expert in most significant domains. This conjunction represents a leverage point ...
 
Antipatterns in the Creation of Intelligent Systems
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Phil Laplante, Robert R. Hoffman, Gary Klein
Issue Date:January 2007
pp. 91-95
Shortly after the notion of design patterns emerged, practitioners began discussing problem-solution pairs in which the solution did more harm than good. These have come to be known as antipatterns. The authors describe two existing classes of antipatterns...
 
Making Sense of Sensemaking 2: A Macrocognitive Model
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Gary Klein, Brian Moon, Robert R. Hoffman
Issue Date:September 2006
pp. 88-92
This essay is the second in a two-part series on sensemaking. It presents a data/frame model of sensemaking, which suggests an approach to intelligent systems that differs from that suggested by calls for systems that will do such things as data fusion and...
 
Making Sense of Sensemaking 1: Alternative Perspectives
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Gary Klein, Brian Moon, Robert R. Hoffman
Issue Date:July 2006
pp. 70-73
This essay discusses the notion of sensemaking, including definitions and possible applications for intelligent decision support systems. The perspectives on the notion of sensemaking are those of psychology, human-centered computing, and naturalistic deci...
 
HCC Implications for the Procurement Process
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman, William C. Elm
Issue Date:January 2006
pp. 74-81
Most system designers and human factors engineers have participated in projects that culminated in systems that were highly constrained by short-term cost considerations. In the procurement of information processing and intelligent technology for complex s...
 
Decision(?)Making(?)
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman, J. Frank Yates
Issue Date:July 2005
pp. 76-83
Computers, including intelligent systems, assist human decision making in many ways. Decision aids can provide information involved in deciding, or information pertinent to evaluating states of the world. To support these situation assessment and monitorin...
 
Toward a Theory of Complex and Cognitive Systems
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman, David D. Woods
Issue Date:January 2005
pp. 76-79
This essay considers the nature and status of the
 
Ten Challenges for Making Automation a
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Gary Klein, David D. Woods, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, Robert R. Hoffman, Paul J. Feltovich
Issue Date:November 2004
pp. 91-95
The authors propose 10 challenges for making automation components into effective
 
Keeping It Too Simple: How the Reductive Tendency Affects Cognitive Engineering
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Paul J. Feltovich, Robert R. Hoffman, David Woods, Axel Roesler
Issue Date:May 2004
pp. 90-94
When faced with complex tasks and information, people sometimes deal with the complexity through oversimplification, which can lead to misconception and faulty knowledge application. This has serious implications for cognitive engineers designing complex s...
 
The Janus Principle
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman, Gavan Lintern, Susan Eitelman
Issue Date:March 2004
pp. 78-80
<p>The Roman mythological god Janus was said to bring all things into the world, from the seasons to the ways of civilization. He was symbolized as a two-faced god, one youthful, the other elderly. The authors find here an allegory to the apprentice-...
 
The Pleasure Principle
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman, Patrick J. Hayes
Issue Date:January 2004
pp. 86-88, c3
<p>Unfortunately, computers do not always provide an unmixed increase in pleasure. Recent evidence suggests, contrary to what one might hope or suppose, that the computerization of the modern workplace has actually led to declines in productivity. Ne...
 
Work-arounds, Make-work, and Kludges
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Philip Koopman, Robert R. Hoffman
Issue Date:November 2003
pp. 70-75
<p>Paradigms are often defined partly in terms of what they are not, or in terms of what they are reacting against. The paradigm of human-centered computing is no exception. So, what is a user-hostile system? Related to that question, the terms kludg...
 
The Borg Hypothesis
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, Patrick J. Hayes, Kenneth M. Ford
Issue Date:September 2003
pp. 73-75
<p></p>
 
The Boiled Frog Problem
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman, Lewis F. Hanes
Issue Date:July 2003
pp. 68-71
<p>In all complex sociotechnical workplaces, knowledge and skill have become widely recognized as increasingly important assets. They are important because expertise is a
 
Macrocognition
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Gary Klein, Karol G. Ross, Brian M. Moon, Devorah E. Klein, Robert R. Hoffman, Erik Hollnagel
Issue Date:May 2003
pp. 81-85
<p></p>
 
From Contextual Inquiry to Designable Futures: What Do We Need to Get There?
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Sidney W.A. Dekker, James M. Nyce, Robert R. Hoffman
Issue Date:March 2003
pp. 74-77
No summary available.
 
The Sacagawea Principle
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Mica Endsley, Robert R. Hoffman
Issue Date:November 2002
pp. 80-85
No summary available.
 
The Triples Rule
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman, Patrick Hayes, Kenneth M. Ford, Peter Hancock
Issue Date:May 2002
pp. 62-65
<p>A fundamental stance taken in human-centered computing is that information-processing devices must be thought of in systems terms. At first blush, this seems self-evident. However, the notion has a long history, and not just in systems engineering...
 
The State of Cognitive Systems Engineering
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman, Gary Klein, K. Ronald Laughery
Issue Date:January 2002
pp. 73-75
No summary available.
 
Guest Editors' Introduction: Human-Centered Computing at NASA
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Michael G. Shafto, Robert R. Hoffman
Issue Date:September 2002
pp. 10-13
No summary available.
 
The Practitioner's Cycles, Part 2: Solving Envisioned World Problems
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman, Steven V. Deal, Scott Potter, Emilie M. Roth
Issue Date:May 2010
pp. 6-11
<p>Software system development processes are often misaligned with the challenges faced by development teams. This article proposed a Practitioner's Cycle development approach, which suggests one way of bringing artisanship back into the procurement ...
 
Metrics, Metrics, Metrics: Negative Hedonicity
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman, Peter Hancock, Morris Marx
Issue Date:March 2008
pp. 69-73
A significant challenge is that in studies of human-computer interaction, the new technologies must themselves be evaluated for effectiveness as a component within a cognitive work system. This essay focuses on the possibility of measuring
 
The Practitioner's Cycles, Part 1: Actual World Problems
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Steven V. Deal, Robert R. Hoffman
Issue Date:March 2010
pp. 4-9
<p>This essay focuses on the forces and constraints of procurement versus the goals of human centering, especially the creation of intelligent technologies that are usable, useful, and understandable. The procurement process tends to de-emphasize the...
 
The Practitioner's Cycles, Part 3: Implementation Opportunities
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Steven V. Deal, Robert R. Hoffman
Issue Date:September 2010
pp. 77-81
<p>The Practitioner's Cycle approach has developers begin system design and development with cognitive task analysis to understand the current work and then continue investigating the envisioned world as new technologies and work methods are created ...
 
Myths of Automation, Part 2: Some Very Human Consequences
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Robert R. Hoffman,John K. Hawley,Jeffrey M. Bradshaw
Issue Date:March 2014
pp. 82-85
In a previous essay, the myths of automation were described by reference to &#x0022;deadly sins.&#x0022; Here, a case study is presented that illustrates the myths and their consequences. Indeed, the case study takes the word &#x0022;deadly&...
 
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