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Displaying 1-50 out of 60 total
Guest Editors' Introduction: Virtual Populace
Found in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
By Norman I. Badler, Carol O'Sullivan
Issue Date:July 2009
pp. 17-18
Only in the ruins of post-apocalyptic cities would the absence of living entities be appropriate, whereas real environments are filled with characters, whether they're alone, in groups, or congregating in large crowds. Therefore, the simulation of populate...
 
Collision Awareness Using Vibrotactile Arrays
Found in: Virtual Reality Conference, IEEE
By Aaron Bloomfield, Norman I. Badler
Issue Date:March 2007
pp. 163-170
What is often missing from many virtual worlds is a physical sense of the confinement and constraint of the virtual environment. To address this issue, we present a method for providing localized cutaneous vibratory feedback to the user's right arm. We cre...
 
Modeling Crowd and Trained Leader Behavior during Building Evacuation
Found in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
By Nuria Pelechano, Norman I. Badler
Issue Date:November 2006
pp. 80-86
This article considers animating evacuation in complex buildings by crowds who might not know the structure's connectivity, or who find routes accidently blocked. It takes into account simulated crowd behavior under two conditions: where agents communicate...
 
Generating Sequence of Eye Fixations Using Decision-theoretic Attention Model
Found in: Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshop
By Erdan Gu, Jingbin Wang, Norman I. Badler
Issue Date:June 2005
pp. 92
<p>Human eyes scan images with serial eye fixations. We proposed a novel attention selectivity model for the automatic generation of eye fixations on 2D static scenes. An activation map was first computed by extracting primary visual features and det...
 
Real-Time Reach Planning for Animated Characters Using Hardware Acceleration
Found in: Computer Animation and Social Agents, International Conference on
By Ying Liu, Norman I. Badler
Issue Date:May 2003
pp. 86
We present a heuristic-based real-time reach planning algorithm for virtual human figures. Given the start and goal positions in a 3D workspace, our problem is to compute a collision-free path that specifies all the configurations for a human arm to move f...
 
A Taxonomy and Comparison of Haptic Actions for Disassembly Tasks
Found in: Virtual Reality Conference, IEEE
By Aaron Bloomfield, Yu Deng, Jeff Wampler, Pascale Rondot, Dina Harth, Mary McManus, Norman Badler
Issue Date:March 2003
pp. 225
The usefulness of modern day haptics equipment for virtual simulations of actual maintenance actions is examined. In an effort to categorize which areas haptic simulations may be useful, we have developed a taxonomy for haptic actions. This classification ...
 
Creating Interactive Virtual Humans: Some Assembly Required
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Jonathan Gratch, Jeff Rickel, Elisabeth André, Justine Cassell, Eric Petajan, Norman Badler
Issue Date:July 2002
pp. 54-63
No summary available.
 
Design of a Virtual Human Presenter
Found in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
By Tsukasa Noma, Liwei Zhao, Norman I. Badler
Issue Date:July 2000
pp. 79-85
In our society, people make presentations to inform, teach, motivate, and persuade others. Appropriate gestures effectively enhance the expressiveness and believability of such presentations. Likewise, a virtual human agent who adequately performs gestures...
 
To Gesture or Not to Gesture: What is the Question?
Found in: Computer Graphics International Conference
By Norman I. Badler, Monica Costa, Liwei Zhao, Diane Chi
Issue Date:June 2000
pp. 3
Computer synthesized characters are expected to make appropriate face, limb, and body gestures during communicative acts. We focus on non-facial movements and try to elucidate what is intended with the notions of “gesture” and “naturalness”. We argue that ...
 
Algorithms for Generating Motion Trajectories Described by Prepositions
Found in: Computer Animation
By Yilun Dianna Xu, Norman I. Badler
Issue Date:May 2000
pp. 30
A list of representative directional prepositions of the English language is investigated to develop computation models that output some general motion trajectory or goal direction, given instructions involving prepositional phrases. Computation models are...
 
Animation 2000++
Found in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
By Norman I. Badler
Issue Date:January 2000
pp. 28-29
No summary available.
 
Virtual Human Animation Based on Movement Observation and Cognitive Behavior Models
Found in: Computer Animation
By Norman I. Badler, Diane M. Chi, Sonu Chopra
Issue Date:May 1999
pp. 128
Automatically animating virtual humans with actions that reflect real human motions is still a challenge. We present a framework for animation that is based on utilizing empirical and validated data from movement observation and cognitive psychology. To il...
 
Smart Avatars in JackMOO
Found in: Virtual Reality Conference, IEEE
By Jianping Shi, Thomas J. Smith, John P. Granieri, Norman I. Badler
Issue Date:March 1999
pp. 156
Creation of compelling 3-dimensional, multi-user virtual worlds for education and training applications requires a high degree of realism in the appearance, interaction, and behavior of avatars within the scene. Our goal is to develop and/or adapt existing...
 
Virtual Humans for Animation, Ergonomics, and Simulation
Found in: Motion of Non-Rigid and Articulated Objects, IEEE Computer Society Workshop on
By Norman Badler
Issue Date:July 1997
pp. 0028
The last few years have seen great maturation in the computation speed and control methods needed to portray 3D virtual humans suitable for real interactive applications. We first describe the state of the art, then focus on the particular approach taken a...
 
User-Controlled Physics-Based Animation for Articulated Figures
Found in: Computer Animation
By Evangelos Kokkevis, Dimitri Metaxas, Norman I. Badler
Issue Date:June 1996
pp. 16
We present a physics-based system for the guided animation of articulated figures. Based on an efficient forward dynamics simulator, we introduce a robust feedback control scheme and a fast two-stage collision response algorithm. A user of our system provi...
 
Decision Networks for Integrating the Behaviors of Virtual Agents and Avatars
Found in: Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium
By Thomas S. Trias, Sonu Chopra, Barry D. Reich, Michael B. Moore, Norman I. Badler, Bonnie L. Webber, Christopher W. Geib
Issue Date:April 1996
pp. 156
We examine the use of decision networks in animating virtual agents. We have developed a system that allows the realization of multiple, parallel behaviors for an agent. The networks we utilize, called PaT-Nets, are used both to represent individual behavi...
 
Animating Human Locomotion with Inverse Dynamics
Found in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
By Hyeongseok Ko, Norman I. Badler
Issue Date:March 1996
pp. 50-59
We present an efficient technique that animates human locomotion using balance and comfort control based on inverse dynamics and strength data. Loads or 3D external forces can be applied to any body point. Inverse dynamics using the Newton-Euler method is ...
 
A Kinematic Model of the Human Spine and Torso
Found in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
By Gary Monheit, Norman I. Badler
Issue Date:March 1991
pp. 29-38
<p>Efforts to develop a more accurate model of the human spine and torso in order to improve realism in human motion modeling are discussed. The model of spinal motion, which is represented within Jack (a software system for human figure modeling and...
 
Articulated Figure Positioning by Multiple Constraints
Found in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
By Norman Badler, Kamran Manoochehri, Graham Walters
Issue Date:June 1987
pp. 28-38
A problem that arises in positioning an articulated figure is the solution of 3D joint positions (kinematics) when goal positions, rather than joint angles, are given. If more than one such goal is o be achived, tge problem is often solved interactively by...
 
Graphics Bulletin Board
Found in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
By Norman Badler
Issue Date:May 1987
pp. 56-59
No summary available.
 
Correction to ``Decomposition of Three-Dimensional Objects into Spheres''
Found in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
By Joseph O'Rourke,Norman Badler
Issue Date:April 1979
pp. 417
No summary available.
   
Decomposition of Three-Dimensional Objects into Spheres
Found in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
By Joseph O'Rourke,Norman Badler
Issue Date:March 1979
pp. 295-305
Algorithms are presented for converting between different three-dimensional object representations: from a collection of cross section outlines to surface points, and from surface points to a collection of overlapping spheres. The algorithms effect a conve...
 
Eyes alive
Found in: Proceedings of the 29th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques (SIGGRAPH '02)
By Jeremy B. Badler, Norman I. Badler, Sooha Park Lee
Issue Date:July 2002
pp. 581
For an animated human face model to appear natural it should produce eye movements consistent with human ocular behavior. During face-to-face conversational interactions, eyes exhibit conversational turn-taking and agent thought processes through gaze dire...
     
Eyes alive
Found in: ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG)
By Jeremy B. Badler, Norman I. Badler, Sooha Park Lee
Issue Date:January 1991
pp. 230-230
For an animated human face model to appear natural it should produce eye movements consistent with human ocular behavior. During face-to-face conversational interactions, eyes exhibit conversational turn-taking and agent thought processes through gaze dire...
     
Interaction with a color computer graphics system for archaeological sites
Found in: Proceedings of the 5th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques (SIGGRAPH '78)
By Norman I. Badler, Virginia R. Badler
Issue Date:August 1978
pp. 217-221
Our goal was to design and implement an interactive system using a color video display to assist an archaeologist in the task of analyzing the spatial distribution of various objects from an excavated site. The existing system configuration required contro...
     
ADAPT: The Agent Development and Prototyping Testbed
Found in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
By Alexander Shoulson,Nathan Marshak,Mubbasir Kapadia,Norman I. Badler
Issue Date:February 2014
pp. 1
We present ADAPT, a flexible platform for designing and authoring functional, purposeful human characters in a rich virtual environment. Our framework incorporates character animation, navigation, and behavior with modular interchangeable components to pro...
 
ADAPT: The Agent Development and Prototyping Testbed
Found in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
By Alexander Shoulson,Nathan Marshak,Mubbasir Kapadia,Norman I. Badler
Issue Date:November 2013
pp. 1
We present ADAPT, a flexible platform for designing and authoring functional, purposeful human characters in a rich virtual environment. Our framework incorporates character animation, navigation, and behavior with modular interchangeable components to pro...
 
Graphics Bulletin Board
Found in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
By Norman Badler
Issue Date:July 1987
pp. 73
No summary available.
 
Sound localization and multi-modal steering for autonomous virtual agents
Found in: Proceedings of the 18th meeting of the ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games (I3D '14)
By Ladislav Kavan, Mubbasir Kapadia, Norman I. Badler, Pengfei Huang, Yu Wang
Issue Date:March 2014
pp. 23-30
With the increasing realism of interactive applications, there is a growing need for harnessing additional sensory modalities such as hearing. While the synthesis and propagation of sounds in virtual environments has been explored, there has been little wo...
     
SPREAD: sound propagation and perception for autonomous agents in dynamic environments
Found in: Proceedings of the 12th ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation (SCA '13)
By Mubbasir Kapadia, Norman I. Badler, Pengfei Huang
Issue Date:July 2013
pp. 135-144
The perception of sensory information and its impact on behavior is a fundamental component of being human. While visual perception is considered for navigation, collision, and behavior selection, the acoustic domain is relatively unexplored. Recent work i...
     
Multi-domain real-time planning in dynamic environments
Found in: Proceedings of the 12th ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation (SCA '13)
By Alejandro Beacco, Francisco Garcia, Mubbasir Kapadia, Norman I. Badler, Nuria Pelechano, Vivek Reddy
Issue Date:July 2013
pp. 115-124
This paper presents a real-time planning framework for multi-character navigation that enables the use of multiple heterogeneous problem domains of differing complexities for navigation in large, complex, dynamic virtual environments. The original navigati...
     
Efficient motion retrieval in large motion databases
Found in: Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games (I3D '13)
By Norman I. Badler
Issue Date:March 2013
pp. 19-28
There has been a recent paradigm shift in the computer animation industry with an increasing use of pre-recorded motion for animating virtual characters. A fundamental requirement to using motion capture data is an efficient method for indexing and retriev...
     
Feature preserving manifold mesh from an octree
Found in: Proceedings of the eighth ACM symposium on Solid modeling and applications (SM '03)
By Koji Ashida, Norman I. Badler
Issue Date:June 2003
pp. 292-297
We describe an algorithm to generate a manifold mesh from an octree while preserving surface features. The algorithm requires samples of a surface (coordinates) on the octree edges, along with the surface normals at those coordinates.The distinct features ...
     
FacEMOTE: qualitative parametric modifiers for facial animations
Found in: Proceedings of the 2002 ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics symposium on Computer animation (SCA '02)
By Meeran Byun, Norman I. Badler
Issue Date:July 2002
pp. 65-71
We propose a control mechanism for facial expressions by applying a few carefully chosen parametric modifications to pre-existing expression data streams. This approach applies to any facial animation resource expressed in the general MPEG-4 form, whether ...
     
ACUMEN: amplifying control and understanding of multiple entities
Found in: Proceedings of the first international joint conference on Autonomous agents and multiagent systems: part 1 (AAMAS '02)
By Aravind Joshi, Charles Adams, Elena Zoubanova, Jan Allbeck, Karin Kipper, Martha Palmer, Norman Badler, William Schuler
Issue Date:July 2002
pp. 191-198
In virtual environments, the control of numerous entities in multiple dimensions can be difficult and tedious. In this paper, we present a system for synthesizing and recognizing aggregate movements in a virtual environment with a high-level (natural langu...
     
Digital humans: what roles will they play?
Found in: ACM SIGGRAPH 2002 conference abstracts and applications (SIGGRAPH '02)
By Evan Marc Hirsch, Laurie McCulloch, Nadia Magenat-Thalmann, Norman I. Badler, Phil LoPiccolo
Issue Date:July 2002
pp. 88-89
Computer graphics technology has progressed to the point where it is possible to create digital humans that are virtually indistinguishable from the real items. The potential benefits are immense, but there are implications to consider as well, in a range ...
     
Dynamically altering agent behaviors using natural language instructions
Found in: Proceedings of the fourth international conference on Autonomous agents (AGENTS '00)
By Aravind K. Joshi, Jan M. Allbeck, Martha Palmer, Norman I. Badler, Rama Bindiganavale, William Schuler
Issue Date:June 2000
pp. 293-300
When creating virtual reality environments a large amount of the interaction needs to be programmed. The problem with this is that non-computer expert users lack the programming skills necessary to create useful applications. Specifying interactions remain...
     
Automatic recognition and mapping of constraints for motion retargetting
Found in: ACM SIGGRAPH 99 Conference abstracts and applications (SIGGRAPH '99)
By Norman I. Badler, Rama Bindiganavale
Issue Date:August 1999
pp. 234
This paper describes a physically-based rendering system tailored to the demands of lighting design and architecture. The simulation uses a light-backwards ray-tracing method with extensions to efficiently solve the rendering equation under most conditions...
     
Animating expressivity through effort elements
Found in: ACM SIGGRAPH 99 Conference abstracts and applications (SIGGRAPH '99)
By Diane M. Chi, Janis Pforsich, Norman I. Badler
Issue Date:August 1999
pp. 231
This paper describes a physically-based rendering system tailored to the demands of lighting design and architecture. The simulation uses a light-backwards ray-tracing method with extensions to efficiently solve the rendering equation under most conditions...
     
Where to look? Automating attending behaviors of virtual human characters
Found in: Proceedings of the third annual conference on Autonomous Agents (AGENTS '99)
By Norman I. Badler, Sonu Chopra-Khullar
Issue Date:April 1999
pp. 16-23
When creating virtual reality environments a large amount of the interaction needs to be programmed. The problem with this is that non-computer expert users lack the programming skills necessary to create useful applications. Specifying interactions remain...
     
Multi-pass pipeline rendering: realism for dynamic environments
Found in: Proceedings of the 1997 symposium on Interactive 3D graphics (SI3D '97)
By Norman I. Badler, Paul J. Diefenbach
Issue Date:April 1997
pp. 59-ff.
we present an exact and interactive collision detection system, I-COLLIDE, for large-scale environments. Such environments are characterized by the number of objects undergoing rigid motion and the complexity of the models. The algorithm does not assume th...
     
Behavioral control for real-time simulated human agents
Found in: Proceedings of the 1995 symposium on Interactive 3D graphics (SI3D '95)
By Barry D. Reich, John P. Granieri, Jonathan Crabtree, Norman I. Badler, Welton Becket
Issue Date:April 1995
pp. 173-180
A system for controlling the behaviors of an interactive human-like agent, and executing them in real-time, is presented. It relies on an underlying model of continuous behavior as well as a discrete scheduling mechanism for changing behavior over time. A ...
     
Animated conversation: rule-based generation of facial expression, gesture & spoken intonation for multiple conversational agents
Found in: Proceedings of the 21st annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques (SIGGRAPH '94)
By Brett Achorn, Brett Douville, Catherine Pelachaud, Justine Cassell, Mark Steedman, Matthew Stone, Norman Badler, Scott Prevost, Tripp Becket
Issue Date:July 1994
pp. 413-420
We describe an implemented system which automatically generates and animates conversations between multiple human-like agents with appropriate and synchronized speech, intonation, facial expressions, and hand gestures. Conversation is created by a dialogue...
     
Automatic viewing control for 3D direct manipulation
Found in: Proceedings of the 1992 symposium on Interactive 3D graphics (SI3D '92)
By Cary B. Phillips, John Granieri, Norman I. Badler
Issue Date:June 1992
pp. 71-74
We first outline an overall design philosophy for rigid geometric manipulations, then examine a manipulation's characteristics: nesting, scope, pivot constraints, and axis, constraints. We show how a mnemonic notation helps us explain how a simple matrix o...
     
Interactive behaviors for bipedal articulated figures
Found in: Proceedings of the 18th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques (SIGGRAPH '91)
By Cary B. Phillips, Norman I. Badler
Issue Date:July 1991
pp. 243-252
We describe a fast method for creating physically based animationof non-rigid objects. Rapid simulation of non- rigid behavior isbased on global deformations. Con- straints are used to connectnon-rigid pieces to each other, forming complex models. Constrai...
     
Production and playback of human figure motion for visual simulation
Found in: ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation (TOMACS)
By John P. Granieri, Jonathan Crabtree, Norman I. Badler
Issue Date:January 1991
pp. 222-241
We describe a system for off-line production and real-time playback of motion for articulated human figures in 3D virtual environments. The key notion are (1) the logical storage of full-body motion in posture graphs, which provides a simple motion access ...
     
Inverse kinematics positioning using nonlinear programming for highly articulated figures
Found in: ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG)
By Jianmin Zhao, Norman I. Badler
Issue Date:January 1991
pp. 313-336
An articulated figure is often modeled as a set of rigid segments connected with joints. Its configuration can be altered by varying the joint angles. Although it is straight forward to compute figure configurations given joint angles (forward kinematics),...
     
JACK: a toolkit for manipulating articulated figures
Found in: Proceedings of the 1st annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User Interface Software (UIST '88)
By Cary B. Phillips, Norman I. Badler
Issue Date:October 1988
pp. 221-229
The problem of positioning and manipulating three dimensional articulated figures is often handled by ad hoc techniques which are cumbersome to use. In this paper, we describe a system which provides a consistent and flexible user interface to a complex re...
     
Virtual humans for validating maintenance procedures
Found in: Communications of the ACM
By Charles A. Erignac, Norman I. Badler, Ying Liu
Issue Date:January 1988
pp. 56-63
They can be sent to check the human aspects of complex physical systems by simulating assembly, repair, and maintenance tasks in a 3D virtual environment.
     
Virtual beings
Found in: Communications of the ACM
By Norman I. Badler
Issue Date:January 1988
pp. 33-35
Case study findings from several corporate environments suggest that successful virtualization does not depend on the degree of technological sophistication. It's how the tools are used that matters.
     
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