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Displaying 1-50 out of 54 total
Quantitative Texton Sequences for Legible Bivariate Maps
Found in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
By Colin Ware
Issue Date:November 2009
pp. 1523-1530
Representing bivariate scalar maps is a common but difficult visualization problem. One solution has been to use two dimensional color schemes, but the results are often hard to interpret and inaccurately read. An alternative is to use a color sequence for...
 
Design and Evaluation in Visualization Research
Found in: Visualization Conference, IEEE
By Donald House, Victoria Interrante, David Laidlaw, Russell Taylor, Colin Ware
Issue Date:October 2005
pp. 117
Until very recently, the emphasis in Visualization research has been on methods, their algorithmic underpinnings, and their implementation in systems. Most papers have been of the proof of concept variety: describing new ideas for attacking a visualization...
 
Thinking with Visualization
Found in: Information Visualization, IEEE Symposium on
By Colin Ware
Issue Date:October 2003
pp. 1
No summary available.
   
Color Sequences for Univariate Maps: Theory, Experiments and Principles
Found in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
By Colin Ware
Issue Date:September 1988
pp. 41-49
<p>Pseudocoloring for presenting univariate map information on a graphic display system is investigated. The kinds of information available in maps are divided into two classes: metric information denotes the quantity stored at each point on the surf...
 
Toward a Perceptual Theory of Flow Visualization
Found in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
By Colin Ware
Issue Date:March 2008
pp. 6-11
Perceptual theory has much to tell us about effective flow visualization. Since visualization is a practical tool, a meaningful theory must be constructive–not just descriptive–leading to better data representations. The author contend that such a useful b...
 
Patterns and Words, Logic and Narrative:What can we expect of a visual language?
Found in: Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing, IEEE Symposium on
By Colin Ware
Issue Date:September 2007
pp. 11
Current theories of perception and language can help answer the question,
   
An Approach to the Perceptual Optimization of Complex Visualizations
Found in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
By Donald H. House, Alethea S. Bair, Colin Ware
Issue Date:July 2006
pp. 509-521
<p><b>Abstract</b>—This paper proposes a new experimental framework within which evidence regarding the perceptual characteristics of a visualization method can be collected, and describes how this evidence can be explored to discover pri...
 
On the Optimization of Visualizations of Complex Phenomena
Found in: Visualization Conference, IEEE
By Donald House, Alethea Bair, Colin Ware
Issue Date:October 2005
pp. 12
The problem of perceptually optimizing complex visualizations is a difficult one, involving perceptual as well as aesthetic issues. In our experience, controlled experiments are quite limited in their ability to uncover interrelationships among visualizati...
 
Haptic State-Surface Interactions
Found in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
By Rick Komerska, Colin Ware
Issue Date:November 2004
pp. 52-59
Haptic state-surface interaction techniques, which encode modes into force states, make interactions with 3D objects more fluid and natural.
 
The Effect of a Perceptual Syntax on the Learnability of Novel Concepts
Found in: Information Visualisation, International Conference on
By Pourang Irani, Colin Ware
Issue Date:July 2004
pp. 308-314
Language theorists argue that the reason why spoken language is acquired so rapidly is that we have an innate predisposition for understanding linguistic structures. Theories of perception also hold that there may be deeply seated mechanisms for decomposin...
 
A Study of Haptic Linear and Pie Menus in a 3D Fish Tank VR Environment
Found in: Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, International Symposium on
By Rick Komerska, Colin Ware
Issue Date:March 2004
pp. 224-231
New pop-up menu styles such as pie menus and marking menus have proven to be measurably faster and more accurate in mouse and pen-based interfaces. These characteristics suggest that they may also be useful for 3D haptically enhanced environments. This pap...
 
Integrating Multiple 3D Views through Frame-of-Reference Interaction
Found in: Coordinated and Multiple Views in Exploratory Visualization, International Conference on
By Matthew Plumlee, Colin Ware
Issue Date:July 2003
pp. 34
Frame-of-reference interaction consists of a unified set of 3D interaction techniques for exploratory navigation of large virtual spaces in non-immersive environments. It is based on a conceptual framework that considers navigation from a cognitive perspec...
 
User Studies: Why, How, and When?
Found in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
By Robert Kosara, Christopher G. Healey, Victoria Interrante, David H. Laidlaw, Colin Ware
Issue Date:July 2003
pp. 20-25
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Haptic Task Constraints fo 3D Interaction
Found in: Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, International Symposium on
By Rick Komerska, Colin Ware
Issue Date:March 2003
pp. 270
We have created a haptically enabled fish tank VR that we call Haptic-GeoZui3D that utilizes a set of haptic widget and data object elements to support rapid and intuitive interaction within a large geographical data space. We leverage the center of worksp...
 
Haptic Interface for Center-of-Workspace Interaction
Found in: Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, International Symposium on
By Rick Komerska, Colin Ware, Matthew Plumlee
Issue Date:March 2002
pp. 352
A fish tank VR testbed has been created that uses center of workspace interaction as a unifying concept, and incorporates a SensAble Technologies Phantom 1.0 haptic input device. Fish tank VR refers to the creation of a small but high quality virtual reali...
   
Using Perceptual Syntax to Enhance Semantic Content in Diagrams
Found in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
By Pourang Irani, Maureen Tingley, Colin Ware
Issue Date:September 2001
pp. 76-85
<p>Diagrams are essential in documenting large information systems. A diagram provides a mapping from the problem domain to the visual representation by supporting cognitive processes that involve perceptual pattern finding and cognitive symbolic ope...
 
Using the Bat: A Six-Dimensional Mouse for Object Placement
Found in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
By Colin Ware, Danny R. Jessome
Issue Date:November 1988
pp. 65-70
<p>Existing strategies for 6-D placement (i.e positioning and orienting) are briefly reviewed. An approach is presented that uses a 6-D variant on the conventional mouse, called the 'bat', because it is like a mouse that flies. This device encodes re...
 
Factors influencing the choice of projection textures for displaying layered surfaces
Found in: Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization (APGV '09)
By Alethea S. Bair, Colin Ware, Donald H. House
Issue Date:September 2009
pp. 101-108
We report on an experiment designed to examine the effect of type and size of projection textures on the ability of human subjects to correctly estimate the surface normal on each of two terrain-like layered surfaces. Normal estimation was determined by th...
     
Neural modeling of flow rendering effectiveness
Found in: Proceedings of the 5th symposium on Applied perception in graphics and visualization (APGV '08)
By Colin Ware, Daniel Pineo
Issue Date:August 2008
pp. 113-118
It has been previously proposed that understanding the mechanisms of contour perception can provide a theory for why some flow rendering methods allow for better judgments of advection pathways than others. In the present paper we develop this theory throu...
     
Motion coding for pattern detection
Found in: Proceedings of the 3rd symposium on Applied perception in graphics and visualization (APGV '06)
By Colin Ware, Rusty Bobrow
Issue Date:July 2006
pp. 107-110
A relatively underutilized method for visualizing data is to map variables directly to the oscillatory motion of glyphs. When doing this, the most straightforward parameters to consider are the frequency, phase and amplitude of sinusoidal oscillation. We r...
     
3D contour perception for flow visualization
Found in: Proceedings of the 3rd symposium on Applied perception in graphics and visualization (APGV '06)
By Colin Ware
Issue Date:July 2006
pp. 101-106
One of the most challenging problems in data visualization is the perception of 3D flow fields because judging the orientation of 3D paths is perceptually difficult. It is hypothesized that perception of the orientations of streamlines in space can greatly...
     
Zooming versus multiple window interfaces: Cognitive costs of visual comparisons
Found in: ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI)
By Colin Ware, Matthew D. Plumlee
Issue Date:June 2006
pp. 179-209
In order to investigate large information spaces effectively, it is often necessary to employ navigation mechanisms that allow users to view information at different scales. Some tasks require frequent movements and scale changes to search for details and ...
     
Perceptually optimizing textures for layered surfaces
Found in: Proceedings of the 2nd symposium on Appied perception in graphics and visualization (APGV '05)
By Alethea Bair, Colin Ware, Donald House
Issue Date:August 2005
pp. 67-74
In this paper, we take a new look at the problem of texturing surfaces so that they can be displayed layered over each other but remain clearly visible. Finding optimal textures that solve this problem is complex because of the perceptual interactions betw...
     
Reevaluating stereo and motion cues for visualizing graphs in three dimensions
Found in: Proceedings of the 2nd symposium on Appied perception in graphics and visualization (APGV '05)
By Colin Ware, Peter Mitchell
Issue Date:August 2005
pp. 51-58
It has been known for some time that larger graphs can be interpreted if viewed in 3D than in 2D. Both kinetic depth cues and stereoscopic depth cues increase the size of the structure that can be interpreted. However, prior studies were carried out using ...
     
Frames of reference in virtual object rotation
Found in: Proceedings of the 1st Symposium on Applied perception in graphics and visualization (APGV '04)
By Colin Ware, Roland Arsenault
Issue Date:August 2004
pp. 135-141
It is difficult with most current computer interfaces to rotate a virtual object so that it matches the orientation of another virtual object. Times to perform this simple task can exceed 20 seconds whereas the same kind of rotation can be accomplished wit...
     
Motion to support rapid interactive queries on node--link diagrams
Found in: ACM Transactions on Applied Perception (TAP)
By Colin Ware, Robert Bobrow
Issue Date:July 2004
pp. 3-18
Many different problems can be represented as graphs displayed in the form of node--link diagrams. However, when a graph is large it becomes visually uninterpretable because of the tangle of links. We describe a set of techniques that use motion in an inte...
     
An evaluation of methods for linking 3D views
Found in: Proceedings of the 2003 symposium on Interactive 3D graphics (SI3D '03)
By Colin Ware, Matthew Plumlee
Issue Date:April 2003
pp. 193-201
It is common for 3D visualization systems to provide multiple points of view to a user, but there have been many solutions to the problem of linking these views so that users can understand the spatial relationships between them. Toward developing guidelin...
     
Diagramming information structures using 3D perceptual primitives
Found in: ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI)
By Colin Ware, Pourang Irani
Issue Date:March 2003
pp. 1-19
The class of diagrams known collectively as node-link diagrams are used extensively for many applications, including planning, communications networks, and computer software. The defining features of these diagrams are nodes, represented by a circle or rec...
     
A method for the perceptual optimization of complex visualizations
Found in: Proceedings of the Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI '02)
By Colin Ware, Donald House
Issue Date:May 2002
pp. 19-24
A common problem in visualization applications is the display of one surface overlying another. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to do this clearly and effectively. Stereoscopic viewing can help, but in order for us to be able to see both surfaces ...
     
Zooming, multiple windows, and visual working memory
Found in: Proceedings of the Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI '02)
By Colin Ware, Matthew Plumlee
Issue Date:May 2002
pp. 19-24
Zooming and multiple windows are two techniques designed to address the focus-in-context problem. We present a theoretical model of performance that models the relative benefits of these techniques when used by humans for completing a task involving compar...
     
Visual interference with a transparent head mounted display
Found in: CHI '01 extended abstracts on Human factors in computer systems (CHI '01)
By Colin Ware, Robert S. Laramee
Issue Date:March 2001
pp. 323-324
Potential perceptual problems that may occur with monocular wearable displays are binocular rivalry and visual interference. We report the results from an experiment with a monocular wearable showing that text becomes increasingly difficult to read as the ...
     
Diagrams based on structural object perception
Found in: Proceedings of the Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI '00)
By Colin Ware, Pourang Irani
Issue Date:May 2000
pp. 61-67
Most diagrams, particularly those used in software engineering, are line drawings consisting of nodes drawn as rectangles or circles, and edges drawn as lines linking them. In the present paper we review some of the literature on human perception to develo...
     
Eye-hand co-ordination with force feedback
Found in: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems (CHI '00)
By Colin Ware, Roland Arsenault
Issue Date:April 2000
pp. 408-414
The term Eye-hand co-ordination refers to hand movements controlled with visual feedback and reinforced by hand contact with objects. A correct perspective view of a virtual environment enables normal eye-hand co-ordination skills to be applied. But is it ...
     
Real handles, virtual images
Found in: CHI 98 conference summary on Human factors in computing systems (CHI '98)
By Colin Ware, Jeff Rose
Issue Date:April 1998
pp. 235-236
We present an approach to control information flow in object-oriented systems. The decision of whether an informatin flow is permitted or denied depends on both the authorizations specified on the objects and the process by which information is obtained an...
     
Context sensitive flying interface
Found in: Proceedings of the 1997 symposium on Interactive 3D graphics (SI3D '97)
By Colin Ware, Daniel Fleet
Issue Date:April 1997
pp. 127-ff.
we present an exact and interactive collision detection system, I-COLLIDE, for large-scale environments. Such environments are characterized by the number of objects undergoing rigid motion and the complexity of the models. The algorithm does not assume th...
     
Vection with large screen 3D imagery
Found in: Conference companion on Human factors in computing systems: common ground (CHI '96)
By Colin Ware, Kathy Lowther
Issue Date:April 1996
pp. 233-234
We present an approach to control information flow in object-oriented systems. The decision of whether an informatin flow is permitted or denied depends on both the authorizations specified on the objects and the process by which information is obtained an...
     
Moving motion metaphors
Found in: Conference companion on Human factors in computing systems: common ground (CHI '96)
By Colin Ware
Issue Date:April 1996
pp. 225-226
We present an approach to control information flow in object-oriented systems. The decision of whether an informatin flow is permitted or denied depends on both the authorizations specified on the objects and the process by which information is obtained an...
     
The DragMag image magnifier
Found in: Conference companion on Human factors in computing systems (CHI '95)
By Colin Ware, Marlon Lewis
Issue Date:May 1995
pp. 407-408
We present an approach to control information flow in object-oriented systems. The decision of whether an informatin flow is permitted or denied depends on both the authorizations specified on the objects and the process by which information is obtained an...
     
Passive force feedback for velocity control
Found in: Conference companion on Human factors in computing systems (CHI '94)
By Colin Ware, Mark A. Paton
Issue Date:April 1994
pp. 255-256
We present an approach to control information flow in object-oriented systems. The decision of whether an informatin flow is permitted or denied depends on both the authorizations specified on the objects and the process by which information is obtained an...
     
Virtual hand tool with force feedback
Found in: Conference companion on Human factors in computing systems (CHI '94)
By Colin Ware, Ravin Balakrishman, Tim Smith
Issue Date:April 1994
pp. 83-84
Hyperspeech is a speech-only hypermedia application that explores issues of speech user interfaces, navigation, and system architecture in a purely audio environment without a visual display. The system uses speech recognition input and synthetic speech fe...
     
Rivalry and interference with a head-mounted display
Found in: ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI)
By Colin Ware, Robert S. Laramee
Issue Date:March 1994
pp. 238-251
Perceptual factors that affect monocular, transparent (a.k.a "see-thru") head-mounted displays include binocular rivalry, visual interference, and depth of focus. We report the results of an experiment designed to evaluate the effects of these factors on u...
     
Rotating virtual objects with real handles
Found in: ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI)
By Colin Ware, Jeff Rose
Issue Date:March 1994
pp. 162-180
Times for virtual object rotations reported in the literature are of the order of 10 seconds or more and this is far longer than it takes to manually orient a “real” object, such as a cup. This is a report of a series of experiments designed to...
     
Selection using a one-eyed cursor in a fish tank VR environment
Found in: ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI)
By Colin Ware, Kathy Lowther
Issue Date:March 1994
pp. 309-322
This study investigates the use of a 2D cursor presented to one eye for target selection in Fish Tank VR and other stereo environments. It is argued that 2D selection of 3D objects should be less difficult than 3D selection. Vision research concerning bino...
     
Reaching for objects in VR displays: lag and frame rate
Found in: ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI)
By Colin Ware, Ravin Balakrishnan
Issue Date:March 1994
pp. 331-356
This article reports the results from three experimental studies of reaching behavior in a head-coupled stereo display system with a hand-tracking subsystem for object selection. It is found that lag in the head-tracking system is relatively unimportant in...
     
Lag as a determinant of human performance in interactive systems
Found in: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems (CHI '93)
By Colin Ware, I. Scott MacKenzie
Issue Date:April 1993
pp. 488-493
The sources of lag (the delay between input action and output response) and its effects on human performance are discussed. We measured the effects in a study of target acquisition using the classic Fitts' law paradigm with the addition of four lag conditi...
     
Fish tank virtual reality
Found in: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems (CHI '93)
By Colin Ware, Kellogg S. Booth, Kevin Arthur
Issue Date:April 1993
pp. 37-42
The defining characteristics of what we call “Fish Tank Virtual Reality” are a stereo image of a three dimensional (3D) scene viewed on a monitor using a perspective projection coupled to the head position of the observer. We discuss some of th...
     
Manipulating the future: predictor based feedback for velocity control in virtual environment navigation
Found in: Proceedings of the 1992 symposium on Interactive 3D graphics (SI3D '92)
By Colin Ware, Dale Chapman
Issue Date:June 1992
pp. 63-66
We first outline an overall design philosophy for rigid geometric manipulations, then examine a manipulation's characteristics: nesting, scope, pivot constraints, and axis, constraints. We show how a mnemonic notation helps us explain how a simple matrix o...
     
Orderable dimensions of visual texture for data display: orientation, size and contrast
Found in: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems (CHI '92)
By Colin Ware, William Knight
Issue Date:May 1992
pp. 203-209
Vision research relating to the human perception of texture is briefly reviewed with a view to arriving at the principal dimensions of visual texture useful for data display. The conclusion is that orientation, size (1/spatial frequency), and contrast (amp...
     
Evaluating 3D task performance for fish tank virtual worlds
Found in: ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)
By Colin Ware, Kellogg S. Booth, Kevin W. Arthur
Issue Date:January 1992
pp. 239-265
We review Structured Analysis as presented by Yourdon and DeMarco. First, we examine the implicit assumptions embodied in the method about the nature of organizations, work processes, and design. Following this we present the results of an exploratory stud...
     
The RGYB color geometry
Found in: ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG)
By Colin Ware, William Cowan
Issue Date:January 1991
pp. 226-232
Background:The gamut of a color CRT is defined by its three primary colors, each produced by a phosphor/electron gun combination. Light from the primaries combines additively, so the color gamut is a subset of a three dimensional vector space [1]. With the...
     
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