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Displaying 1-50 out of 111 total
A PSO- SVM Lips Recognition Method Based on Active Basis Model
Found in: Genetic and Evolutionary Computing, International Conference on
By Chih-Yu Hsu, Chih-Hung Yang, Yung-Chih Chen, Min-chian Tsai
Issue Date:December 2010
pp. 743-747
The paper proposed a novel method for lip recognition based on Active Basis Model (ABM). There are four stages in a flowchart of this novel method. At the first stage the deformable templates of lip images is obtained. The lip images of deformable template...
 
Support Vector Machine Combined with GARCH Models for Call Option Price Prediction
Found in: Artificial Intelligence and Computational Intelligence, International Conference on
By Chih-Chaing Lu, Chih-Hung Wu
Issue Date:November 2009
pp. 35-40
The traditional BS evaluation model for options assumes volatility as a constant, and is unable to explain phenomena such as leptokurtic distribution and volatility clusters. In order to supplement this shortcoming, scholars have begun to use linear and no...
 
A Reading Contract System Based on Mission-Based Learning
Found in: Computers in Education, International Conference on
By Jie Chi Yang, Chih Hung Chen, Yu Bin Chen, Chih Hung Lai, Tak Wai Chan, Tzu Chien Liu
Issue Date:December 2002
pp. 934
This paper describes a system, called reading contract system, based on the concept of mission-based learning. The system is developed in order to foster children?s reading habits and active learning attitudes under the design of mission-based learning. Ac...
 
A SysML Based Requirement Modeling Automatic Transformation Approach
Found in: 2014 IEEE 38th International Computer Software and Applications Conference Workshops (COMPSACW)
By Chih-Hung Chang,Chih-Wei Lu,Wen Pin Yang,William Cheng-Chung Chu,Chao-Tung Yang,Ching-Tsorng Tsai,Pao-Ann Hsiung
Issue Date:July 2014
pp. 474-479
In a software development life cycle, system requirement management is an important but neglected step. A good requirement management can not only help developers to meet the requirements of the system, but also play an essential role for the communication...
 
The Development of Cloud Computing and Its Challenges for Taiwan
Found in: 2012 IEEE 36th Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference - COMPSAC 2012
By William C. Chu,Chih-Hung Chang,Chih-Wei Lu,Juei-Nan Chen,Feng-Jian Wang
Issue Date:July 2012
pp. 380-386
Along with the growing attention, cloud computing is not only changing the computing paradigm, but also the style of computing in which dynamically scalable and virtualized resources are provided as services over the Internet. Cloud computing introduces a ...
 
Cloud computing in Taiwan
Found in: Computer
By William Cheng-Chung Chu, Chao-Tung Yang, Chih-Wei Lu, Chih-Hung Chang, Juei-Nan Chen, Pao-Ann Hsiung, Hahn-Ming Lee
Issue Date:June 2012
pp. 48-56
Cloud computing is changing the computing environment: scalable, virtualized resources are increasingly provided as services over the Internet. Taiwan is also changing, transforming itself from a hardware manufacturing island into a cloud village offering ...
 
Prediction-Based Lossless Data Hiding by Adaptive Coefficient-Bias Algorithm
Found in: Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing, International Conference on
By Ching-Yu Yang,Chih-Hung Lin,Wu-Chih Hu
Issue Date:October 2011
pp. 65-68
In this paper, we propose a new loss less data hiding method by the adaptive coefficient-bias (ACB) algorithm. The proposed ACB algorithm involves two main steps: block-mean removal and pixel isolating. The block-mean removal first generates the difference...
 
Adaptive Performance Monitoring for Embedded Multicore Systems
Found in: Parallel Processing Workshops, International Conference on
By Chun-Yi Shih,Ming-Chih Li,Chao-Sheng Lin,Pao-Ann Hsiung,Chih-Hung Chang,William C. Chu,Nien-Lin Hsueh,Chihhsiong Shih,Chao-Tung Yang,Chorng-Shiuh Koong
Issue Date:September 2011
pp. 222-228
With the advent of multicore processors, the performance of software has been elevated to new unforeseen heights via parallelization. However, this has not been achieved without new problems cropping up due to parallelization. One serious issue is the perf...
 
XML-Based Reusable Component Repository for Embedded Software
Found in: Computer Software and Applications Conference Workshops
By Chih-Hung Chang,Chih-Wei Lu,William C. Chu,Chao-Tung Yang,Pao-Ann Hsiung,Nien-Lin Hsueh,Chorng-Shiuh Koong,Kuei-Kai Shao
Issue Date:July 2011
pp. 345-350
In the development stage of the embedded system, the market demand and system development trend will be influence by the Time to Market. Reliable and fast system deployment is not easy to implement. Reduced price and system development time can increase th...
 
A SysML-Based Requirement Supporting Tool for Embedded Software
Found in: Secure Software Integration and Reliability Improvement Companion, IEEE International Conference on
By Chih-Hung Chang, Chih-Wei Lu, Kuo-Fong Kao, William C. Chu, Chao-Tung Yang, Nien-Lin Hsueh, Pao-Ann Hsiung, Chorng-Shiuh Koong
Issue Date:June 2011
pp. 202-206
Maintaining uniformity of software requirement documents with the artifacts of other phases of software lifecycle is very important. However, it is a difficult and time-consuming task. Natural language usually contains uncertainty. Most requirement documen...
 
Reversible Watermarking by Coefficient Adjustment Method
Found in: Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing, International Conference on
By Ching-Yu Yang, Chih-Hung Lin, Wu-Chih Hu
Issue Date:October 2010
pp. 39-42
In this paper, a novel reversible watermarking method based on the coefficient adjustment technique is proposed. A host image is first decomposed into the integer wavelet transform (IWT) domain. Subsequently, a secret message is embedded into the low-high ...
 
Supporting Design Enhancement by Pattern-Based Transformation
Found in: Computer Software and Applications Conference, Annual International
By Nien-Lin Hsueh, Peng-Hua Chu, Pao-Ann Hsiung, Min-Ju Chuang, William Chu, Chih-Hung Chang, Chorng-Shiuh Koong, Chih-Hsiong Shih
Issue Date:July 2010
pp. 462-467
In general, a design pattern is usually documented in the form of an essay, with descriptions and rough design such as intent, motivation, structure, behavior, applicability and consequence, etc. Even though there are tools supporting pattern application, ...
 
Model-driven development of multi-core embedded software
Found in: Multicore Software Engineering, ICSE Workshop on
By Pao-Ann Hsiung, Shang-Wei Lin, Yean-Ru Chen, Nien-Lin Hsueh, Chih-Hung Chang, Chih-Hsiong Shih, Chorng-Shiuh Koong, Chao-Sheng Lin, Chun-Hsien Lu, Sheng-Ya Tong, Wan-Ting Su, William C. Chu
Issue Date:May 2009
pp. 9-16
Model-driven development is worthy of further research because of its proven capabilities in increasing productivity and ensuring correctness. However, it has not yet been explored for multi-core processor-based embedded systems, whose programming is even ...
 
Improving Software Integration from Requirement Process with a Model-Based Object-Oriented Approach
Found in: Secure System Integration and Reliability Improvement
By Chih-Hung Chang, Chih-Wei Lu, William C. Chu
Issue Date:July 2008
pp. 175-176
Sustaining uniformity of software artifacts from phases through software lifecycle is very important for efficient software evolution and maintenance. Most requirement documents were written in ambiguous natural language which is less formal and imprecise....
 
Particle Swarm Optimization-Aided Feature Selection for Spam Email Classification
Found in: Innovative Computing ,Information and Control, International Conference on
By Chih-Chin Lai, Chih-Hung Wu
Issue Date:September 2007
pp. 165
Using a finite set of features to help determine an email as spam or non-spam is a very popular way. However, in most cases, the feature selection is em- pirically verified. This paper investigates how particle swarm optimization algorithm can help select ...
 
The Application of Improved Genetic Algorithm on the Training of Neural Network for Speech Recognition
Found in: Innovative Computing ,Information and Control, International Conference on
By Shing-Tai Pan, Chih-Hung Wu, Chih-Chin Lai
Issue Date:September 2007
pp. 168
This paper adopted Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to recognize Mandarin digit speech. The nonspecific speaker speech recognition was the target of this paper. Genetic algorithm (GA) was first used to replace Steepest Descent Method (SDM) and make a global...
 
A Model-based Object-oriented Approach to Requirement Engineering (MORE)
Found in: Computer Software and Applications Conference, Annual International
By Chih-Wei Lu, William C. Chu, Chih-Hung Chang, Ching Huey Wang
Issue Date:July 2007
pp. 153-156
Most requirement documents were written in ambiguous natural languages which are less formal and imprecise. Without modeling the requirement documents, the knowledge of the requirement is hard to be kept in a way, which can be analyzed and integrated with ...
 
Software Maintainability Improvement: Integrating Standards and Models
Found in: Computer Software and Applications Conference, Annual International
By William C. Chu, Chih-Wei Lu, Chih-Hung Chang, Yeh-Ching Chung, Yueh-Min Huang, Baowen Xu
Issue Date:August 2002
pp. 697
Software standards are highly recommended because they promise faster and more efficient ways for software development with proven techniques and standard notations. Designers who adopt standards like UML and design patterns to construct models and designs...
 
From Applications, to Models and to Embedded System Code: A Modeling Approach in Action
Found in: Quality Software, International Conference on
By Hsin-Yu Tung, Chih-Hung Chang, Chih-Wei Lu, William C. Chu, Hongji Yang
Issue Date:July 2010
pp. 488-494
Embedded systems are becoming more and more popular in current digital era. In order to improve the development efficiency, a framework of Object-Oriented (OO) program on embedded system is designed in this research. UML modeling language is adopted to con...
 
FinancialCloud: Open Cloud Framework of Derivative Pricing
Found in: 2013 International Conference on Social Computing (SocialCom)
By Hsin-Tsung Peng,William W.Y. Hsu,Chih-Hung Chen,Feipei Lai,Jan-Ming Ho
Issue Date:September 2013
pp. 782-789
Predicting prices and risk measures of assets and derivatives and rating of financial products have been studied and widely used by financial institutions and individual investors. In contrast to the centralized and oligopoly nature of the existing financi...
 
Knowledge Creation and Financial Firm Performance: Mediating Processes from an Organizational Agility Perspective
Found in: Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences
By Tingting (Rachel) Chung,Ting-Peng Liang,Chih-Hung Peng,Deng-Neng Chen
Issue Date:January 2012
pp. 3622-3631
Knowledge creation has emerged as a critical area in information systems research in the past decade [1]. One of the mechanisms through which knowledge creation enhances firm performance has been theorized as organizational agility. This paper empirically ...
   
Indoor Service Robot with Multi-sensors Implementation on the MOM
Found in: Computational Aspects of Social Networks, International Conference on
By Wen-Yo Lee, Yun-Ter Su, Ta-Chih Hung
Issue Date:September 2010
pp. 121-125
this paper proposes an indoor service robot, which integrated with multi-sensors to implement the service robotics functions. This experiment setup is based on the common platform called Automatic Robot Toolkit (ART), which offers a message stream dispatch...
 
Extracting Rules from Optimal Clusters of Self-Organizing Maps
Found in: Computer Modeling and Simulation, International Conference on
By Chihli Hung, Lynn Huang
Issue Date:January 2010
pp. 382-386
Self-organizing map (SOM) neural networks have been successfully applied to solve classification and clustering problems. However, while most SOM models pursue their results as accurately as possible, they ignore the importance of understanding and explana...
 
Two-stage Optimization Support Vector Machine for the Construction of Investment Strategy Model
Found in: Artificial Intelligence, International Joint Conference on
By Chih-Hung Wen,Wen-Tsao Pan
Issue Date:April 2009
pp. 248-251
In recent years, methods of artificial intelligence have been widely used in the study of investment related topics, and the methods adopted include genetic algorithm and neural network, etc. However, as different to the methods taken in the past, support ...
 
Towards Adaptive Covert Communication System
Found in: Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing, IEEE
By Fedor V. Yarochkin, Shih-Yao Dai, Chih-Hung Lin, Yennun Huang, Sy-Yen Kuo
Issue Date:December 2008
pp. 153-159
Covert channels are secret communication paths, which existance is not expected in the original system design. Covert channels can be used as legimate tools of censorship resistance, anonimity and privacy preservation to address issues with
 
A Requirement Tool to Support Model-Based Requirement Engineering
Found in: Computer Software and Applications Conference, Annual International
By Chih-Wei Lu, Chih-Hung Chang, William C. Chu, Ya-Wen Cheng, Hsin-Chien Chang
Issue Date:August 2008
pp. 712-717
Most requirement documents are written in natural languages and represented in less structured and imprecise formats. Including requirement phase, Artifacts created in phases of software life cycle are required to be modeled and integrated, so the traceabi...
 
An Integrated Software Development Environment with XML Internal Representation
Found in: Computer Software and Applications Conference, Annual International
By Chih-Hung Chang, William C. Chu, Chih-Wei Lu, Don-Lin Yang
Issue Date:September 2004
pp. 540-545
The process of software engineering and the industries themselves tend to be fluctuant. There are numerous factors, such as software methodologies, supporting tools, and process managements, which may significantly affect the strategies and activities of a...
 
Supporting Tool for Embedded Software Testing
Found in: Quality Software, International Conference on
By Chorng-Shiuh Koong, Hung-Jui Lai, Chih-Hung Chang, William C. Chu, Nien-Lin Hsueh, Pao-Ann Hsiung, Chihhsiong Shih, Chao-Tung Yang
Issue Date:July 2010
pp. 481-487
Embedded software testing is a complex and difficult task. During the testing process, testing tasks often require additional hardware devices to assist. This paper, in the perspective of software solution, presents a supporting tool for testing embedded s...
 
A Genetic Approach for Coordinate Transformation of GPS Signals
Found in: Innovative Computing ,Information and Control, International Conference on
By Chih-Hung Wu, Hung-Ju Chou, Wei-Han Su
Issue Date:September 2006
pp. 558-561
Traditional approach for coordinate transformation is a level-wised process where several sets of equations obtained by geographical survey are invoked, which makes the whole process complicated and introduces the accumulation of calculating errors. This p...
 
Using Association Rules for Completing Missing Data
Found in: Hybrid Intelligent Systems, International Conference on
By Chih-Hung Wu, Chian-Huei Wun, Hung-Ju Chou
Issue Date:December 2004
pp. 236-241
We present in this paper a new method for completing missing data using the concept of association rules. The basic idea is that association rules describe the dependency relationships among data entries in a dataset where all data, including the missing o...
 
A Bluetooth-Smart Insulating Container for Cold-Chain Logistics
Found in: 2013 IEEE 6th International Conference on Service-Oriented Computing and Applications (SOCA)
By Pai H. Chou,Cheng-Ting Lee,Zan-Ya Peng,Jo-Ping Li,Tong Kun Lai,Chun-Min Chang,Cheng-Hsun Yang,Yi-Lin Chen,Chin-Chung Nien,Li-Huei Chen,Li-Yen Lai,Jen-Chao Lu,Shang-Chih Hung
Issue Date:December 2013
pp. 298-303
This paper describes an intelligent insulating shipping container (IISC) and the supporting backend for cold-chain logistics. Each IISC can monitor the interior temperature of the container during shipping of temperature-sensitive items and alerts the deli...
 
Using Objective Words in SentiWordNet to Improve Word-of-Mouth Sentiment Classification
Found in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
By Chihli Hung,Hao-Kai Lin
Issue Date:March 2013
pp. 47-54
To improve the performance of word-of-mouth sentiment classification, this article reevaluates objective sentiment words in the SentiWordNet sentiment lexicon.
 
Efficient and effective NIDS for cloud virtualization environment
Found in: 2012 IEEE 4th International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science (CloudCom)
By Chih-Hung Lin,Chin-Wei Tien,Hsing-Kuo Pao
Issue Date:December 2012
pp. 249-254
While more and more digital application services move to the cloud virtualization environment, the network security challenges are equally striking. In general, these network attacks can be detected by deploying network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs) ...
 
Electronic Court Rule Lines
Found in: 2012 Third International Conference on Digital Manufacturing and Automation (ICDMA)
By Wel-Ming Ni,Li-Shan Ma,Chih-Hung Wu,Chun-Chieh Wang,De-En Zhan,Yi-Shu Cheng,Jun-Qi Wang
Issue Date:July 2012
pp. 376-379
In this paper, multiple electronic court rule line representations with controlled LED light bars are proposed. The various court rule lines can be represented by the LED light bars which are controlled by 8051 MCU. In our designed system, the distinct rul...
 
A Novel Strategy by Using Synovial Membranes, Cartilage Fragments and Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cartilage Tissue Engineering: A Novel Strategy for Cartilage Tissue Engineering
Found in: Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, International Conference on
By Chia-Chun Chen,Jia-Si Hu,Hsu-Wei Fang,Chih-Hung Chang
Issue Date:May 2012
pp. 965-967
In this study, we used cartilage fragments, synovial membranes and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to mimic a knee joint environment for cartilage tissue engineering. SEM images showed that MSCs attached and grew well in the constructs and exhib...
 
Coverage Enhancing Algorithms in Directional Sensor Networks with Rotatable Sensors
Found in: Asia-Pacific Conference on Services Computing. 2006 IEEE
By Chiu-Kuo Liang,Chih-Hung Tsai,Ting-Hao Chu
Issue Date:December 2011
pp. 377-383
Recently directional sensor networks have received a lot of attention. A directional sensor network is composed of many directional sensor nodes. Unlike conventional omni-directional sensors that always have an omni-angle of sensing range, directional sens...
 
Resource Management for Robotic Applications
Found in: IEEE TrustCom/IEEE ICESS/FCST, International Joint Conference of
By Yi-Zong Ou,E. T.-H. Chu,Wen-Wei Lu,Jane W. S. Liu,Ta-Chih Hung,Jwu-Sheng Hu
Issue Date:November 2011
pp. 1210-1216
This paper presents Robotic Application Resource Management Services (RARMS), a collection of tools for integrating reusable software components of a wide class of robotic applications on Microsoft Windows, a general-purpose, commodity operating system. RA...
 
An Efficient V-Fairness (t, n) Threshold Secret Sharing Scheme
Found in: Genetic and Evolutionary Computing, International Conference on
By Jen-Ho Yang,Chin-Chen Chang,Chih-Hung Wang
Issue Date:September 2011
pp. 180-183
Lee and Laih proposed a v-fairness (t, n) secret sharing scheme such that the participants can recover a secret without providing their shadows simultaneously. Besides, the honest participants can obtain the secret even if there are v cheaters among the t ...
 
An Approach for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Design Patterns in Software Evolution
Found in: Computer Software and Applications Conference Workshops
By Nien-Lin Hsueh,Lin-Chieh Wen,Der-Hong Ting,William Chu,Chih-Hung Chang,Chorng-Shiuh Koong
Issue Date:July 2011
pp. 315-320
In recent years, the influences of design patterns on software quality have attracted increasing attention in the area of software engineering, as design patterns encapsulate valuable knowledge to resolve design problems, and more importantly to improve th...
 
Identity-Based Concurrent Signature Scheme with Improved Accountability
Found in: Innovative Mobile and Internet Services in Ubiquitous Computing, International Conference on
By Chih-Hung Wang, Chao Chuan Chen
Issue Date:July 2011
pp. 514-519
In Eurocrypt'04, the concept of the concurrent signature was introduced by Chen, Kulda and Paterson, in which they proposed a somewhat weaker concept to solve the traditional fair exchange problem. Concurrent signatures provide a new idea for fair exchange...
 
Performance Comparison with OpenMP Parallelization for Multi-core Systems
Found in: Parallel and Distributed Processing with Applications, International Symposium on
By Chao-Tung Yang, Tzu-Chieh Chang, Hsien-Yi Wang, William C.C. Chu, Chih-Hung Chang
Issue Date:May 2011
pp. 232-237
Today, the multi-core processor has occupied more and more market shares, and the programming personnel also must face the collision brought by the revolution of multi-core processor. Semiconductor scaling limits and associated power and thermal challenges...
 
Point-of-Regard Measurement via Iris Contour with One Eye from Single Image
Found in: 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia (ISM 2010)
By Shang-Che Huang, Yi-Leh Wu, Wei-Chih Hung, Cheng-Yuan Tang
Issue Date:December 2010
pp. 336-341
Eye gaze tracking is a technique which is commonly used in human-computer interaction. By determining the eye gaze, the point-of-regard can be estimated by intersecting the gaze line and the target plane. A particular assumption is that irises are regarded...
 
Movement Assisted Sensor Deployment in Directional Sensor Networks
Found in: Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Networks, International Conference on
By Chiu-Kuo Liang, Meng-Chia He, Chih-Hung Tsai
Issue Date:December 2010
pp. 226-230
A directional sensor network is composed of many directional sensor nodes. Unlike conventional omni-directional sensors that always have an omni-angle of sensing range, directional sensors may have a limited angle of sensing range due to technical constrai...
 
Fixed-Point Acceleration of Square Root and Logarithm Using Quadratic Regression for HTK Kernel Modules
Found in: Genetic and Evolutionary Computing, International Conference on
By Chih-Hung Chou, Po-Chuan Lin, Jhing-Fa Wang
Issue Date:December 2010
pp. 602-605
This paper proposes a low-computation algorithm for logarithm and square-root in fixed-point domain. The algorithm only needs 3 ~ 6 coefficients to do inner-product of vectors which have three elements. Each computation only needs three fixed-point multipl...
 
Jump Resonance Analysis for Systems with Parametric Uncertainties
Found in: Broadband, Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications, International Conference on
By Li-Shan Ma, Chih-Hung Wu, Jieh-La Jaw, Bing-Fei Wu, Jau-Woei Perng
Issue Date:November 2010
pp. 654-659
In this paper, the extended Fukuma and Matsubara’s criterion incorporating with Kharitonov Theorem are applied to analyze the jump resonance phenomena of the uncertain nonlinear feedback systems whose linear plants containing time invariance interval param...
 
Modeling and Detection of Blurred Illumination Edges
Found in: Image and Video Technology, Pacific-Rim Symposium on
By Cheng Wen, Chih-Hung Huang, Kuang-Chiung Chang
Issue Date:November 2010
pp. 276-281
Luminance edges are classified into reflectance edges and illumination edges. Most of the edge detection papers published focus on reflectance edges detections, whereas only few of them deal with illumination edges. In this paper, a new approach to detect ...
 
A (2, 3) Threshold Secret Sharing Scheme Using Sudoku
Found in: Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing, International Conference on
By Yung-Chen Chou, Chih-Hung Lin, Pao-Ching Li, Yu-Chiang Li
Issue Date:October 2010
pp. 43-46
Secret data delivery is an important application in the modern world. When sending secret data over public computer networks, it has been found that using the Steganography technique is more suitable than the Cryptography technique, because encrypted data ...
 
An Interior Point Optimization Solver for Real Time Inter-frame Collision Detection: Exploring Resource-Accuracy-Platform Tradeoffs
Found in: International Conference on Field Programmable Logic and Applications
By Brian Leung, Chih-Hung Wu, Seda Ogrenci Memik, Sanjay Mehrotra
Issue Date:September 2010
pp. 113-118
We present and compare implementations of an affine interior-point algorithm for real-time collision detection on a GPGPU and an FPGA. This particular interior-point algorithm is distinguished from other collision detection methods by its ability to perfor...
 
Implementation of Web-Based Dynamic Assessment System and its Application on Science Learning
Found in: Advanced Learning Technologies, IEEE International Conference on
By Ah-Fur Lai, Chih-Hung Chen, Horng-Yih Lai
Issue Date:July 2010
pp. 362-364
The purpose of the study is to design a web-based dynamic assessment management system based on gradual prompting assessment theory and probe into the learning effects of dynamic assessment. The study utilized the lever concept of elementary science as an ...
 
Holography: A Hardware Virtualization Tool for Malware Analysis
Found in: Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing, IEEE
By Shih-Yao Dai,Yarochkin Fyodor,Jain-Shing Wu,Chih-Hung Lin,Yennun Huang,Sy-Yen Kuo
Issue Date:November 2009
pp. 263-268
Behavior-based detection methods have the ability to detect unknown malicious software (malware). The success of behavior-based detection methods must depend on sufficient number of abnormal behavior models. Insufficient number of abnormal behavior models ...
 
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