IEEE Computer Society Style Guide

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J2EE: Java 2 Enterprise Edition; J2ME: Java 2 Micro Edition; J2SE: Java 2 Standard Edition. For more information on emerging Java technologies, see


Jabber: streaming XML protocol


Java: cross-platform programming language from Sun Microsystems


JavaOne, JavaBeans, JavaScript, JavaServer Pages (JSP)


Java RMI: Java remote method invocation


JDK: Java development kit


JEDEC: The JEDEC Solid State Technology Assoc., once known as the Joint Electron Device Engineering Council


JEIDA: Japan Electronic Industry Development Association


JFIF: J-PEG file interchange format


jif: an electronic file format


Jini: Java wireless technology


JMS: Java Message Service


John Wiley & Sons


Josephson junction (n): an electronic switching device


Jossey-Bass: a subsidiary of John Wiley & Sons




JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group; also: an electronic file format


Jr.: does not require preceding comma


JSON: JavaScript Object Notation


JTAG: Joint Test Action Group; founders of the boundary scan standard




just-in-time (jit): an inventory management method; no capitals needed; it's almost always used as a modifier


JVM: Java virtual machine


JXTA: platform-independent peer-to-peer distributed networking protocol developed by Sun






K: 1,024, the binary thousand (25 Kbytes, 25-Kbyte memory); also used as temperature designator for Kelvin scale, as in 273 K. However, when used as $10K (with no space) "K" means 1,000. The use of "K" when referring to monetary quantities is discouraged.


k: 1,000, the decimal thousand (164 km); used in metric designations; see CMS 10.57


KAoS: knowledgeable agent-oriented system (nonstandard, but accepted acronym)


KB: kilobyte; use Kbyte (25 Kbytes, 25-Kbyte memory)


Kb: kilobit; use Kbit or spell out, but use Kbps for kilobits per second


KBES: knowledge-based expert system (as opposed to rule-based)


Kbit: kilobit; use Kbit or spell out


Kbps: kilobits per second, preferred over Kb/s; spell out on first use


Kbyte: kilobyte (25 Kbytes, 25-Kbyte memory). Don't use KB.


KEE: Knowledge Engineering Environment, product of Intellicorp


keiretsu: group of companies


kernel: central part of a program or operating system that does the bulk of the calculations; not to be confused with the mathematical meaning


keyboard, keyframe, keyshare, keystream, keyword


Kflops: thousand floating-point operations per second; spell out or convert to Mflops notation


Khornerstone: benchmark


kHz: kilohertz (50 kHz)


kiloWhetstone: measure of floating-point capacity; see benchmarks


KIPS: thousand instructions per second; spell out or convert to MIPS notation


KLOC: thousands of lines of code.


kludge (n), kludgy (adj): a quick fix on a computer or in code


Kluwer Academic Publishers


KM: knowledge management


km2: okay to use instead of "square kilometers"


k-means: a type of algorithm


knowledge base


KSR1: no internal hyphen; a parallel supercomputer from Kendal Square Research


kVA: kilovoltampere


kW: kilowatt




LALR(1): left-to-right scan with one look-ahead token; compare to LL(1)


LAMP: an open source Web server software bundle


LAN: local area network


Lapack: a benchmark; see also ScaLapack


large-scale integration: see LSI


laser disk: preferred spelling over laser disc (unless the word appears as a trademark)


LaTeX (TeX, PCTeX, PCLaTeX): formatting language for typesetting math-heavy articles; pronounced "la-tech;" do not set in small caps or shift any characters above or below the baseline. LaTeX is a superset of TeX, the original format devised by Donald Knuth.


LCD: liquid crystal display


LCCC: leadless ceramic-chip carriers; chip packaging


LDAP: Lightweight Directory Access Protocol


Lear Siegler: hardware manufacturer


least worst: an acceptable term in decision theory


LED: light-emitting diode


LiDAR: light detection and ranging (scanning technology)


life cycle (n), life-cycle (adj): the software product-development process, usually divided into typical phases: requirements specification, design, validation, development, testing (verification), implementation, and maintenance


LIFO (adj): last-in, first-out


light pen


LIM EMS: Lotus/Intel/Microsoft/AST Research expanded memory specification, a standard for configuring and addressing memory above the MS-DOS direct-address 640-Kbyte limit. AST became a development partner after the acronym was coined.


Lincages: Linkage Interactive Computer Analysis and Graphically Enhanced Synthesis package (not a true acronym, but handle as one); a synthesis program for mechanism design developed at the University of Minnesota


Linpack: see benchmark


Linux: open operating system based on the Unix platform


LIPS: logical inferences per second


Lisp: from list processing, a programming language used mainly in artificial intelligence


liveness: the quality of making sure that something good happens (not just ensuring

that nothing bad happens); liveness ensures, for example, that a calculation's results are returned for use, not just calculated; do not use this term without an explanation; compare with safety


LL(1): left-to-right scan with one look-ahead token producing a leftmost derivation; short for "leftmost LALR(1)"; see LALR(1)


LNAI: Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence


LNCS: Lecture Notes in Computer Science; use abbreviation in reference lists


LOC: lines of code


LOCS: lines of code in service


LoD: learning on demand


login, logon, logout, logoff (n, adj), log in, log on, log out, log off (verbs)


look-ahead (adj)




lookup (n, adj); look up (v): process of matching by computer the words of a text with material stored in memory


LOTOS: logic of temporal ordering system


low-cost (adj)


low-end (adj)


lowercase (n, adj)


lpi: lines per inch (300-lpi resolution, 300 lpi)


lpm: lines per minute (145-lpm printer, 145 lpm)


LSI: large-scale integration, about 1,000 to 10,000 circuits per chip


LUT: lookup table, but avoid using the acronym