IEEE Computer Society Style Guide

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G

 

 

G: giga; standard prefix meaning one billion

 

g: gravity (6-g acceleration; passengers in a BMW are exposed to 2 g); the gravitational notation, g, is often italicized to differentiate it from "g" for "gram" or "grams"

 

GaAs: gallium arsenide, a semiconducting material, like silicon, used for integrated circuits; spell out on first use

 

Game Boy; Game Boy Advance; GameCube

 

gameplay

 

GB: gigabyte. Use Gbyte (instead of GB) or spell out.

 

Gbit: gigabit. Use Gbit or spell out.

 

Gbps: gigabits per second. Don't spell this out in Internet Computing.

 

GBps: gigabytes per second.

 

Gbyte: gigabyte. Examples: 25 Gbytes, 25-Gbyte memory

 

GEM: Digital Research's Graphics Environment Manager, an operating environment for MS-DOS PCs

 

general-purpose processors

 

genlock: to superimpose computer-generated graphics over videotaped images (from a camera, VCR, or VTR)

 

Georgia Tech

 

Gflops: gigaflops

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GHz: gigahertz

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GIF: graphic interchange format—an electronic file format

 

giga-: standard prefix meaning one billion

 

Gigabit Ethernet

 

GIGI: DEC's General Imaging Generator and Interpreter

 

GIGO: garbage in, garbage out

 

GIPS: billion instructions per second

 

GIS: geographic information system

 

GKS: Graphical Kernel System, an international graphics standard

 

GlobeCom: IEEE conference

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GNP: gross national product

 

GNU: supports GNU Linux; GNU's not Unix

 

googling

 

GOPS: giga operations per second

 

GPL: General Public License

 

GPRS: General Packet Radio Service

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GPS: Global Positioning System; a constellation of 24 satellites used for navigation and precise geodetic position measurements

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GPU: graphics processing (or processor) unit

 

graftal: an image constructed using parallel graph grammars to define complex objects

 

grandparent, grandmother, grandfather: a group of family words used to describe relationships among nodes in databases. The terms are legitimate—do not edit out. Use gender-neutral grandparent when possible.

 

grand challenge: a difficult problem at the leading edge of a computing field

 

Grappa: Java graph drawing package from AT&T

 

gray: not grey, except in quoted material

 

Gray code: binary sequence in which two contiguous numbers differ in only one bit; capitalize Gray because it is the inventor's name

 

gray scale (n), gray-scale (adj): for example, displayed in gray scale, a gray-scale display

 

grid; grid computing

 

GSM: Global System for Mobile Communications. Don't spell this out in Pervasive Computing.

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GUI: graphical user interface

 

GW-Basic: Microsoft version of Basic for MS-DOS computers; BasicA is the IBM version

 


H

 

 

hacker: an expert who explores the details of programmable systems to stretch their capabilities

 

halfword: half a computer word

 

halftone: an image reproduced from a photo or similar original medium, comprising a series of lines arrayed in a screen, to facilitate sharp, clear printing of images when producing books. Also the preferred format for images in electronic text for camera-ready and other forms. A 100- to 110-line screen is best; lines per inch is the US unit of measure.

 

handheld (adj, n)

 

handshaking: identification protocol for modems

 

hard copy (n), hard-copy (adj)

 

hardwired: describes circuits with only wire and terminal connections, with no intervening switching (no resistors, inductors, or capacitors)

 

HarperBusiness, HarperCollins

 

HCI: human-computer interaction. Don't spell this out in Pervasive Computing.

 

HD (adj): high-definition

 

HDL: hardware description language—any language from a class of computer languages

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HDTV: high-definition TV

 

head-mounted display

 

healthcare

 

help desk

 

hertz: see Hz

 

Hewlett-Packard Laboratories: either HP Labs or HP is acceptable. Always use the hyphen when spelled out.

 

hexadecimal: A numbering system with a base of 16. "A" through "F" represent the decimal numbers 10 through 15.

 

HID: human interface device

 

hidden-line removal

 

hidden Markov model

 

hidden-surface algorithm

 

hidden-surface removal: In computer graphics, removing from the display the surfaces that ordinarily would be obscured by the rest of the object.

 

high level (n), high-level (adj)

 

high-performance computing

 

high-speed (adj): For example, high-speed computing, high-speed switch; but very high speed switch; also, International Journal of High Speed Computing.

 

HiperLan2

 

Hippi: high-performance parallel interface; also written as HiPPI and HIPPI—be prepared to negotiate

 

hither, yon: In computer graphics, the near and far clipping planes.

 

HMM: hidden Markov model

 

homepage

 

hostname

 

HPC: high-performance computing

 

HPCwire: An online weekly publication about high-performance computing. Paper copy does not exist. Italicize it as with the name of any periodical.

 

HPGL: Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language

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HTML: Hypertext Markup Language

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HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol; in Web addresses, use lowercase—http://

 

HVAC: heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; always spell out

 

hyper- (prefix): not hyphenated when used to form a compound

 

hypercube: a parallel computer architecture

 

hyphenation: If you can't resolve a hyphenation question by consulting Webster's, review CMS 7.77-7.85. If you feel a word that technically doesn't require hyphenation (for example, reallocate) might be confusing, consider hyphenating it.

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Hz: hertz; the standard term for cycles per second

 

 

 


I

 

 

IAB: Internet Architecture Board

 

IAMA: Internet Assigned Members Authority

 

IANA: Internet Assigned Numbers Authority

 

IAP: Internet access provider

 

IBE: identity-based encryption

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IBM: International Business Machines Corporation; sometimes informally referred to as "Big Blue"

 

IBM 3740-formatted disk, IBM 370-type controllers (note hyphenation)

 

IBM PC, IBM PC AT, IBM PC XT, IBM RT PC, IBM PS/2 (Models 25, 30, 50, 60, and 80): no hyphens. IBM PC AT-compatible (adj).

 

IBM System/360, IBM System/370: IBM mainframes

 

IBM T.J. Watson Research Center

 

IC: integrated circuit; acceptable on first reference if context warrants

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ICANN: Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers

 

ICASE: Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering, at NASA's Langley Research Center

 

ICCC: International Council for Computer Communication, Washington, D.C.

 

ICOT: Japan's Institute of New Generation Computer Technology, the so-called Fifth Generation project. The initials refer to the Japanese transliteration of the program, not the English translation.

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ICQ: an instant-messaging program

 

ICT: information and communications technology

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ID: identification

 

IDC: formerly International Data Corp.

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IDDQ

 

IDE: integrated drive electronics; also, integrated development environment. Don't spell this out in Software when it means the latter.

 

IDL: Interface Definition Language

 

i.e.: that is—spell out; accept in Transactions if authors insist

 

IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission—an international standards organization

 

IEE: Institution of Electrical Engineers, UK; as of May 2006, renamed as Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET)—merged with Institution of Incorporated Engineers

 

IEEE 488 bus

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IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers; when used to refer to the publisher of a document, it's no longer IEEE Press—just IEEE.

 

IESG: Internet Engineering Steering Group

 

IET: Institution of Engineering and Technology, formerly IEE (see above)

 

IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force

 

IFIP: International Federation for Information Processing

 

IGES: International Graphics Exchange Standard

 

iff: if and only if—spell out; accept in Transactions if authors use it

 

if-then

 

IIL: integrated interconnection logic

 

-ility, -ilities: This is a Software-related term. On its first appearance in an article, use quotes ("-ilities") but no italics. On subsequent appearances, drop the quotes but keep the hyphen.

 

Illiac IV: An early computer, retired from NASA use at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., in 1985

 

IMACS: International Association for Mathematics and Computers in Simulation

 

i-mode: a wireless service

 

IMP: interface-message processor

 

implementer

 

Inc.: abbreviate when used in text as part of a company name, but avoid using it unless a company's name might not be clear without it (Lisp Inc.); no longer set off with a comma

 

inches: Whether you use symbols or spell them out, be consistent when describing dimensions—for example, three inches by five inches or 3? ´ 5?. See also the Numbers and Symbols section.

 

indexes: use indices in mathematical contexts

 

informatics: a term often used to refer to computer science

 

Information Age

 

INFORMS: the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences; formed in 1995 when the Operations Research Society of America (ORSA) merged with the Institute of Management Sciences (IMS)

 

infoserver

 

in-house (adj.)

 

ink-jet printers

 

inline (adj)

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input/output: I/O

 

in queue: hyphenate when using as an adjective (an in-queue directory)

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INRIA: Institut National de Récherche en Informatique et en Automatique (French National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control)

 

in-service (adj)

 

INSPEC: Information Services for Physics, Electronics, and Computing, an IEE (UK) database of English-language research papers. Not a true acronym, but handle as one.

 

integrated circuit: IC is acceptable on first reference

 

Intel's XScale processor

 

International standard: use ISO standard

 

Internet: normally "the Internet"; Internet 2

 

Internet Stream Protocol: ST

 

intranet: internal network

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I/O (n, adj): input/output

 

IOP: Internetworking Operating System

 

IoT: Internet of Things

 

IP: Internet Protocol; intellectual property

 

iPhone: acceptable at the beginning of a sentence.

 

iPSC: parallel processor from Intel

 

IPsec: Internet Protocol security

 

IPv6: Internet Protocol version 6

 

IPX: internetwork packet exchange

 

IR: infrared. Don't spell this out in Pervasive Computing.

 

IrDA: Infrared Data Association. Don't spell this out in Pervasive Computing.

 

IRDS: information-resource dictionary system, a de facto CASE standard

 

IRQ: interrupt request

 

ISAM: indexed sequential access method

 

iSBX bus: product of Intel

 

ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network, a telecommunications service

 

ISM band: Industry, Science, Medicine band

 

ISMM: International Society of Mini- and Microcomputers

 

ISO: International Organization for Standardization (ISO); use ISO when referring to standards (for example, ISO 9000 or "an ISO standard"), but use the entire name with the letters in parentheses when referring to the organization. ISO was originally a true acronym for the International Standards Organization, but the name has been changed and the letters are now only an identifier. Don't spell this out in Software.

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ISP: Internet service provider

 

italics: Use sparingly for emphasis or to introduce new terms; use also for foreign expressions not commonly accepted in English (that is, not found in the main body of Webster's), single-letter variables, longer variables that might be confused with text if not in italics, book titles (includes manuals), movie titles, and TV-series titles.

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IT: information technology

 

ITC: International Test Conference

 

item set; some publications use itemset

 

iterator (n): a programmed action that sets up a counter to control the number of times the action is performed

 

ith: note no space, no hyphen, no superscript

 

ITU-T: International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunication Standardization Sector; formerly, CCITT