Entries with tag computer simulations.

Researchers Use Computer Models to Study Dark Matter

A team of researchers is using computer simulations to study the hypothetical particle that physicists call dark matter. Dark matter is a hypothesized form of matter particle that doesn’t reflect or emit electromagnetic radiation. Physicists have guessed at its existence based on their observation of gravitational effects on physical matter, such as stars and galaxies. Researchers from the Paris Institute of Astrophysics, Ohio State University, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have created detailed computer simulations exploring the density profiles of possible dark-matter voids in more detail than previous studies. The scientists could use the simulations to compare theory and prior simulations with observational data. The researchers published their findings in the journal Physical Review Letters. (American Physical Society)(Physical Review Letters)

Computer Simulations Aid in Additive Manufacturing

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have developed a new approach for additive manufacturing that promises to be more efficient for making metal parts. Their selective laser melting process makes a 3D object in layers using a high-energy laser beam to fuse metal powder particles. Parts made using conventional selective laser melting typically have weaknesses that could lead to failures. Their method avoids these problems by using high-power machines and working with computer designs and simulations in which the problems can be worked out before making a part, allowing users to select the appropriate parameters – the laser power or distance between scan lines, for example, or powder thickness – to create high density parts consistently. The key with selective laser melting is computing the dimensions of the pool of liquid that is formed when the laser melts the metal powder particles. The pools should be sufficiently deep to melt through the powder into the substrate, which results in a high-density material and thus a high-density part. The Lawrence Livermore work is part of its Accelerated Certification of Additively Manufactured Metals Strategic Initiative, which is investigating how computer simulations can help efficiently determine additive-manufacturing process parameters. The researchers published their findings in the International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. (EurekAlert)(Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)(The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology)

Supercomputer Models Aids Astronomers in Modeling Phenomena

Georgia Institute of Technology scientists are using various National Science Foundation-funded supercomputers for simulations, enabling them to better understand various astronomical phenomena. One of these is known as a tidal disruption, which happens when a star’s orbit moves too close to a black hole, causing it to be sucked into the black hole. The tidal disruption causes a bright flare that changes over time. Modeling the dynamics of various forces involved should help scientists better understand tidal disruptions as well as interactions occurring between stars and black holes. With computer simulations, they are able to look at sequences of events from various perspectives, repeating the process if needed. The researchers are using computing resources at the Texas Advanced Computing Center and the National Institute for Computational Sciences as well as at their home institution. Their work is already at the point where improved models are needed as the current research is reportedly outpacing the scientists’ current theoretical understanding of tidal disruptions and ensuring that such modeling will continue to inform their knowledge of these types of phenomena. (SlashDot)(National Science Foundation)

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