Researchers nationwide are using virtual reality (VR) simulation to train first responders, medical personnel and emergency management officials for public health emergencies, Government Technology reports. For example, researchers at the University of California-Davis Health System in 2006 used an $80,000 grant from the California Department of Health Services to re-create a 3-D model of the California Exposition and State Fair in Second Life, the Internet-based world in which people are represented by avatars. They applied the simulation exercise to help train staff members to administer antibiotics from the Strategic National Stockpile in the event of an anthrax attack. Meanwhile, RTI International for several years has been using funding from the Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center to create a VR simulation platform that enables physicians, nurses and paramedics to practice their triage skills in a role-playing game. The program includes 30 casualty scenarios, with users encountering a total of nine examples in any one scene. The not-for-profit Emergency Management Training, Analysis and Simulation Center in Virginia also creates realistic simulations designed to help train managers to communicate effectively during an emergency. Specifically, the program simulates incidents, such as a hurricane, by feeding information to emergency response managers in the same format they would receive during an emergency (Raths, Government Technology, 3/27/08).