This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Visualizing the History of Living Spaces
November/December 2007 (vol. 13 no. 6)
pp. 1153-1160
The technology available to building designers now makes it possible to monitor buildings on a very large scale. Video cameras and motion sensors are commonplace in practically every office space, and are slowly making their way into living spaces. The application of such technologies, in particular video cameras, while improving security, also violates privacy. On the other hand, motion sensors, while being privacy-conscious, typically do not provide enough information for a human operator to maintain the same degree of awareness about the space that can be achieved by using video cameras. We propose a novel approach in which we use a large number of simple motion sensors and a small set of video cameras to monitor a large office space. In our system we deployed 215 motion sensors and six video cameras to monitor the 3,000-square-meter office space occupied by 80 people for a period of about one year. The main problem in operating such systems is finding a way to present this highly multidimensional data, which includes both spatial and temporal components, to a human operator to allow browsing and searching recorded data in an efficient and intuitive way. In this paper we present our experiences and the solutions that we have developed in the course of our work on the system. We consider this work to be the first step in helping designers and managers of building systems gain access to information about occupants' behavior in the context of an entire building in a way that is only minimally intrusive to the occupants' privacy.

[1] N. Andrienko, G. Andrienko, and P. Gatalsky, Towards exploratory visualization of spatio-temporal data. In 3rd AGILE Conference on Geographic Information Science, Helsinki/Espoo, Finland, 2000.
[2] R. Brunelli, O. Mich, and C. Modena, A survey on the automatic indexing of video data. Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, 10 (2): 78–112, 1999.
[3] P. Gatalsky, N. Andrienko, and G. Andrienko, Interactive analysis of event data using space-time cube. In Information Visualization, pages 145–152. IEEE, 2004.
[4] M. Gelgon and P. Bouthemy, Determining a structured spatio-temporal representation of video content for efficient visualization and indexing. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 1406: 595, 1998.
[5] H. B. Horton Machine for registering music, 1855. US Patent Office 13,946.
[6] Y. Ivanov, A. Sorokin, C. Wren, and I. Kaur, Tracking people in mixed modality systems. In VCIP, San Jose, CA, USA, February 2007.
[7] Y. Ivanov and C. Wren, Toward spatial queries for spatial surveillance tasks. In Pervasive: Workshop on Pervasive Technology Applied to Real-World Experiences with RFID and Sensor Networks, volume EI123, May 2006.
[8] T. Kapler and W. Wright, Geotime information visualization. In INFOVIS '04: Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization (INFOVIS'04), pages 25–32, Washington, DC, USA, 2004. IEEE Computer Society.
[9] R. Kincaid and H. Lam, Line graph explorer: scalable display of line graphs using focus+context. In Working Conference on Advanced Visual interfaces, pages 404–411, May 2006.
[10] M.-P. Kwan and J. Lee, Geovisualization of Human Activity Patterns Using 3D GIS: A Time-Geographic Approach, pages 48–66. Oxford University Press, 2004.
[11] C. Plaisant, B. Milash, A. Rose, S. Widoff, and B. Shneiderman, Lifelines: visualizing personal histories. In CHI '96: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, pages 221–ff., New York, NY, USA, 1996. ACM Press.
[12] C. Snoek, M. Worring, J. Geusebroek, D. Koelma, F. Seinstra, and A. Smeulders, The semantic pathfinder: Using an authoring metaphor for generic multimedia indexing. 28 (10): 1678–1689, October 2006.
[13] P. Viola, M. Jones, and D. Snow, Detecting pedestrians using patterns of motion and appearance. In IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), pages 734–741, 2003.
[14] M. Wattenberg, Baby names, visualization, and social data analysis. In INFOVIS '05: Proceedings of the Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, page 1, Washington, DC, USA, 2005. IEEE Computer Society.

Index Terms:
Sensor networks, user interfaces, surveillance, timeline, spatio-temporal visualization.
Citation:
Yuri Ivanov, Christopher Wren, Alexander Sorokin, Ishwinder Kaur, "Visualizing the History of Living Spaces," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1153-1160, Nov.-Dec. 2007, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2007.70621
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.