The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.02 - March-April (2012 vol.38)
pp: 336-353
Arun Sen , Texas A&M University, College Station
K. (Ram) Ramamurthy , University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee
Atish P. Sinha , University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee
ABSTRACT
Even though data warehousing (DW) requires huge investments, the data warehouse market is experiencing incredible growth. However, a large number of DW initiatives end up as failures. In this paper, we argue that the maturity of a data warehousing process (DWP) could significantly mitigate such large-scale failures and ensure the delivery of consistent, high quality, “single-version of truth” data in a timely manner. However, unlike software development, the assessment of DWP maturity has not yet been tackled in a systematic way. In light of the critical importance of data as a corporate resource, we believe that the need for a maturity model for DWP could not be greater. In this paper, we describe the design and development of a five-level DWP maturity model (DWP-M) over a period of three years. A unique aspect of this model is that it covers processes in both data warehouse development and operations. Over 20 key DW executives from 13 different corporations were involved in the model development process. The final model was evaluated by a panel of experts; the results strongly validate the functionality, productivity, and usability of the model. We present the initial and final DWP-M model versions, along with illustrations of several key process areas at different levels of maturity.
INDEX TERMS
Data warehousing process, design-science research, model validation, software maturity models.
CITATION
Arun Sen, K. (Ram) Ramamurthy, Atish P. Sinha, "A Model of Data Warehousing Process Maturity", IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol.38, no. 2, pp. 336-353, March-April 2012, doi:10.1109/TSE.2011.2
REFERENCES
[1] M. Agarwal and K. Chari, "Software Effort, Quality, and Cycle Time: A Study of CMM Level 5 Projects," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 145-156, Mar. 2007.
[2] S. Adelman and L. Moss, "Data Warehouse Failures," The Data Administration Newsletter, www.tdan.comi014fe01.htm, Oct. 2000.
[3] N. Bevan, "International Standards for HCI," http://nigelbevan. com/papersInternational_standards_HCI.pdf ), May 2006.
[4] M. Beyer, "Key Issues for Data Warehousing," Gartner Reports, ID Number: G00147102, Mar. 2007.
[5] J. Brooke, "SUS—A Quick and Dirty Usability Scale," Usability Evaluation in Industry, P.W. Jordan, P. Thomas, B.A. Weerdmeester, and A.L. McClelland, eds., Taylor and Francis, 1996.
[6] V. Chiesa, P. Coughlan, and C. Voss, "Development of a Technical Innovation Audit," J. Product Innovation Management, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 105-136, 1996.
[7] D. Clifford and J.V. Bon, Implementing ISO/IEC 20000 Certification: The Roadmap. Van Haren Publishing, 2008.
[8] P.B. Crosby, Quality Is Free: The Art of Making Quality Certain. New Am. Library, 1979.
[9] Dataflux, Enterprise Data Management Maturity Model, www. dataflux.com, 2005.
[10] W. Eckerson, "Achieving Business Success through a Commitment to High Quality Data," The Data Warehouse Inst. Report Series, www.dw-institute.com, pp. 1-33, 2002.
[11] W. Eckerson, "Gauge Your Data Warehouse Maturity," DM Rev., Nov. 2004.
[12] L.P. English, "Information Quality Management Maturity: Toward the Intelligent Learning Organization," white paper, Information Impact Int'l, Inc., May 2004.
[13] P. Fraser and M. Gregory, "A Maturity Grid Approach to the Assessment of Product Development Collaborations," Proc. Ninth Int'l Product Development Management Conf., May 2002.
[14] T. Friedman, "Data Quality 'Firewall' Enhances Value of the Data Warehouse," Gartner Reports, Apr. 2004.
[15] T. Friedman, "Key Issues of Data Quality: 2007," Gartner Reports, Mar. 2007.
[16] B. Golden, Succeeding with Open Source. Addison-Wesley, 2005.
[17] S. Gregor, "The Nature of Theory in Information Systems," MIS Quarterly, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 611-642, 2006.
[18] S. Gregor and D. Jones, "The Anatomy of a Design Theory," J. Assoc. for Information Systems, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 312-335, 2007.
[19] J.D. Herbsleb, D. Zubrow, D. Goldenson, W. Hayes, and M. Paulk, "Software Quality and the Capability Maturity Model," Comm. ACM, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 30-40, 1997.
[20] A.R. Hevner, S.T. March, J. Park, and S. Ram, "Design Science in Information Systems Research," MIS Quarterly, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 75-105, 2004.
[21] W.S. Humphrey, Managing the Software Process. Addison-Wesley, 1989.
[22] W.S. Humphrey, A Discipline for Software Engineering. Addison-Wesley, 1995.
[23] W.S. Humphrey and M. Kellner, "Software Process Modeling: Principles of Entity Process Models," Technical Report CMU/SEI-89-TR-2, Software Eng. Inst., Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa., 1989.
[24] W.C. Ibbs and Y.H. Kwak, "Assessing Project Management Maturity," Project Management J., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 32-43, 2000.
[25] W.H. Inmon, Building the Data Warehouse, third ed. Wiley, 2002.
[26] J.J. Jiang, G. Klein, and C.L. Carr, "Measuring Information System Service Quality: SERVQUAL from the Other Side," MIS Quarterly, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 145-166, 2002.
[27] W.J. Kettinger and C.C. Lee, "Global Measures of Information Service Quality: A Cross-National Study," Decision Sciences, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 569-588, 1995.
[28] R. Kimball, L. Reeves, M. Ross, and W. Thornthwaite, The Data Warehouse Lifecycle Toolkit. Wiley, 1998.
[29] M.S. Krishnan and M.I. Kellner, "Measuring Process Consistency: Implications for Reducing Software Defects," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 800-815, Nov./Dec. 1999.
[30] D. Laney, "Data Warehouse DBMS Support Costs Either an Arm or a Leg," white paper, Meta Group, June 2000.
[31] R.G. Little and M.L. Gibson, "Perceived Influences on Implementing Data Warehousing," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 290-296, Apr. 2003.
[32] V. Malheiros, F.R. Paim, and M. Mendon, "Continuous Process Improvement at a Large Software Organization," Software Process Improvement and Practice, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 65-83, www. interscience.wiley.com, Mar./Apr. 2009.
[33] D. Marco, "Capability Maturity Model: An Introduction," Information Management Magazine, www.information-management. com/issues/20020801 5567-1.html, Aug. 2002.
[34] D. Marco, "Capability Maturity Model: Applying CMM Levels to Data Warehousing," Information Management Magazine, www. information-management.com/issues/20021001 5800-1.html), Oct. 2002.
[35] D. Marco, "Capability Maturity Model: Applying CMM Levels to Data Warehousing," Information Management Magazine, www. information-management.com/issues/20021101 5989-1.html, Nov. 2002.
[36] K.L. McGraw and K. Harbison-Briggs, Knowledge Acquisition: Principles and Guidelines. Prentice-Hall, 1989.
[37] K.O. McGraw and S.P. Wong, "Forming Inferences about Some Intraclass Correlation Coefficients," Psychological Methods, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 30-46, 1996.
[38] G.A. Moore, Crossing the Chasm, revised ed. Collins Business, Aug. 2002.
[39] M. Mullaly, "Longitudinal Analysis of Project Management Maturity," Project Management J., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 62-73, 2006.
[40] C. Mullins, "The Capability Maturity Model—From a Data Perspective," The Data Administration Newsletter, www.tdan.com, Dec. 1997.
[41] NASCIO (Nat'l Assoc. of State Chief Information Officers) "Enterprise Architecture Maturity Model: Version 1.3," white paper, http:/www.nascio.org/) Dec. 2003.
[42] F. Niessink and H. van Vliet, "Towards Mature IT Services," Software Process—Improvement and Practices, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 55-71, 1998.
[43] F. Niessink, V. Clere, T. Tijdink, and H. van Vliet, "The IT Service Capability Maturity Model," working paper, Dept. of Computer Science, Vrije Universiteit De Boelelaan, Amsterdam, 2005.
[44] "Office of Government Commerce," service support, The Stationery Office, 2000.
[45] "Office of Government Commerce," service delivery, IT Infrastructure Library, The Stationery Office, 2001.
[46] A. Orr, J. Turner, O.N. Kunka, and G. Bullen, "Harnessing the Power of ITIL," ExecBlueprints, pp. 1-18, www.execblueprints. com, 2008.
[47] A. Parasuraman, V.A. Zeithaml, and L.L. Berry, "A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and Its Implications for Future Research," J. Marketing, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 41-50, Fall 1985.
[48] M.C. Paulk, "Practices of High Maturity Organizations," Proc. 11th Software Eng. Process Group Conf., Mar. 1999.
[49] M.C. Paulk, B. Curtis, M.B. Chrissis, and C.V. Weber, "Capability Maturity Model, Version 1.1," IEEE Software, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 18-27, July 1993.
[50] M.C. Paulk, C.V. Weber, B. Curtis, and M.B. Chrissis, The Capability Maturity Model: Guidelines for Improving the Software Process. Addison-Wesley, 2003.
[51] L.F. Pitt, R.T. Watson, and C.B. Kavan, "Service Quality: A Measure of Information Systems Effectiveness," MIS Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 173-187, 1995.
[52] J. Poole, D. Chang, D. Tolbert, and D. Mellor, Common Warehouse Metamodel: An Introduction to the Standard for Data Warehouse Integration. Wiley, 2002.
[53] K. Ramamurthy, A. Sen, and A.P. Sinha, "Data Warehousing Infusion and Organizational Effectiveness," IEEE Trans. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics—Part A: Systems and Humans, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 976-994, July 2008.
[54] P. Russom, "Taking Data Quality to the Enterprise through Data Governance," TDWI Report Series, The Data Warehousing Inst., pp. 1-24, www.tdwi.org, Mar. 2006.
[55] SEI, Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMISM), Version 1.1, CMU/SEI-2002-TR-029, Aug. 2002.
[56] SEI, Process Maturity Profile: Software CMM, 2004 Mid-Year Update Report, Software Eng. Inst., Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Penn., Aug. 2004.
[57] SEI, CMMI for Services: Initial Draft, Software Eng. Inst., Carnegie Mellon Univ., Sept. 2006.
[58] A. Sen and A.P. Sinha, "A Comparison of Data Warehousing Methodologies," Comm. ACM, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 79-84, 2005.
[59] A. Sen and A.P. Sinha, "Toward Developing Data Warehousing Process Standards: An Ontology-Based Review of Existing Methodologies," IEEE Trans. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics— Part C, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 17-31, Jan. 2007.
[60] A. Sen, A.P. Sinha, and K. Ramamurthy, "Data Warehousing Process Maturity: An Exploratory Study of Factors Influencing User Perceptions," IEEE Trans. Eng. Management, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 440-455, Aug. 2006.
[61] J.P. Shim, M. Warkentin, J.F. Courtney, D.J. Power, R. Sharda, and C. Carlsson, "Past, Present, and Future of Decision Support Technology," Decision Support Systems, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 111-126, 2002.
[62] H.A. Simon, The Sciences of the Artificial, third ed. MIT Press, 1996.
[63] SonicSoftware.com. "A New Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) Maturity Model," Research Report, www.sonicsoftware.com index.ssp, Sept. 2005.
[64] C. Todman, Designing a Data Warehouse: Supporting Customer Relationship Management. Prentice Hall, 2001.
[65] J. van Bon, M. Pieper, and A. Van Der Veen, Foundations of IT Service Management Based on ITIL, second ed. Van Haren Publishing, 2005.
[66] J. van Bon and V. Tieneke, Frameworks for IT Management. Van Haren Publishing, 2006.
[67] P. Vassiliadis, "Data Warehouse Modeling and Quality Issues," PhD thesis, Nat'l Technical Univ. of Greece, Athens, Greece, 2001.
[68] J.G. Walls, G.R. Widmeyer, and O.A. El Sawy, "Building an Information System Design Theory for Vigilant EIS," Information Systems Research, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 36-59, 1992.
[69] H. Watson, T. Ariyachandra, and R.J. MatyskaJr., "Data Warehousing Stages of Growth," Information Systems Management, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 42-51, Summer 2001.
[70] R.T. Watson, L.F. Pitt, and C.B. Kavan, "Measuring Information Systems Service Quality: Concerns for a Complete Canvas," MIS Quarterly, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 209-221, 1998.
[71] Wikipedia, "Data Warehouse," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki Data_warehouse , 2011.
[72] Wikipedia "Information Technology Infrastructure Library," http:/en.wikipedia.org/wikiInformation_Technology_Library , May 2010.
[73] R. Winter and R. Burns, "Managing Data Warehouse Growth," Intelligent Enterprise, www.intelligententerprise.comshowArticle. jhtml?articleID=193105574 , Nov. 2006.
[74] B.H. Wixom and H.J. Watson, "An Empirical Investigation of the Factors Affecting Data Warehousing Success," MIS Quarterly, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 17-41, Mar. 2001.
[75] R.K. Yin, Case Study Research: Design and Methods, third ed. Sage Publications, 2002.
28 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool