The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.02 - March/April (2009 vol.35)
pp: 148-161
Greg Franks , Carleton University, Ottawa
Tariq Al-Omari , IBM, Toronto
Murray Woodside , Carleton University , Ottawa
Olivia Das , Ryerson University, Toronto
Salem Derisavi , IBM, Toronto
ABSTRACT
Layered queues are a canonical form of extended queueing network for systems with nested multiple resource possession, in which successive depths of nesting define the layers. The model has been applied to most modern distributed systems, which use different kinds of client-server and master-slave relationships, and scales up well. The Layered Queueing Network (LQN) model is described here in a unified fashion, including its many more extensions to match the semantics of sophisticated practical distributed and parallel systems. These include efficient representation of replicated services, parallel and quorum execution, and dependability analysis under failure and reconfiguration. The full LQN model is defined here and its solver is described. A substantial case study to an air traffic control system shows errors (compared to simulation) of a few percent. The LQN model is compared to other models and solutions, and is shown to cover all their features.
INDEX TERMS
Performance, Modeling and prediction, Queuing theory
CITATION
Greg Franks, Tariq Al-Omari, Murray Woodside, Olivia Das, Salem Derisavi, "Enhanced Modeling and Solution of Layered Queueing Networks", IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol.35, no. 2, pp. 148-161, March/April 2009, doi:10.1109/TSE.2008.74
REFERENCES
[1] P. Maly and C.M. Woodside, “Layered Modeling of Hardware and Software, with Application to a LAN Extension Router,” Proc. 11th Int'l Conf. Computer Performance Evaluation; Modelling Techniques and Tools, pp. 10-24, Mar. 2000.
[2] J.A. Rolia and K.A. Sevcik, “The Method of Layers,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 689-700, Aug. 1995.
[3] C.M. Woodside, E. Neron, E.D. Ho, and B. Mondoux, “An ‘Active Server’ Model for the Performance of Parallel Programs Written Using Rendezvous,” J. Systems and Software, pp. 844-848, 1986.
[4] C.M. Woodside, “Throughput Calculation for Basic Stochastic Rendezvous Networks,” Performance Evaluation, vol. 9, pp. 143-160, 1989.
[5] C.M. Woodside, J.E. Neilson, D.C. Petriu, and S. Majumdar, “The Stochastic Rendezvous Network Model for Performance of Synchronous Client-Server-Like Distributed Software,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 20-34, Aug. 1995.
[6] J.A. Rolia, “Performance Estimates for Systems with Software Servers: The Lazy Boss Method,” Proc. Seventh SCCC Int'l Conf. Computer Science, I. Casas, ed., pp. 25-43, July 1988.
[7] G. Franks, S. Majumdar, J. Neilson, D. Petriu, J. Rolia, and M. Woodside, “Performance Analysis of Distributed Server Systems,” Proc. Sixth Int'l Conf. Software Quality, pp. 15-26, Oct. 1996.
[8] G. Franks and M. Woodside, “Performance of Multi-Level Client-Server Systems with Parallel Service Operations,” Proc. First Int'l Workshop Software and Performance, pp. 120-130, Oct. 1998.
[9] G. Franks and M. Woodside, “Effectiveness of Early Replies in Client-Server Systems,” Performance Evaluation, vol. 36, no. 1, pp.165-184, Aug. 1999.
[10] G. Franks and M. Woodside, “Multiclass Multiservers with Deferred Operations in Layered Queueing Networks, with Software System Applications,” Proc. 12th IEEE/ACM Int'l Symp. Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation of Computer and Telecomm. Systems, D. DeGroot and P. Harrison, eds., pp. 239-248, Oct. 2004.
[11] T. Omari, G. Franks, M. Woodside, and A. Pan, “Solving Layered Queueing Networks of Large Client-Server Systems with Symmetric Replication,” Proc. Fifth Int'l Workshop Software and Performance, pp. 159-166, July 2005.
[12] T. Omari, G. Franks, M. Woodside, and A. Pan, “Efficient Performance Models for Layered Server Systems with Replicated Servers and Parallel Behaviour,” J. Systems and Software, vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 510-527, Apr. 2007.
[13] T. Omari, S. Derisavi, G. Franks, and M. Woodside, “Performance Modeling of a Quorum Pattern in Layered Service Systems,” Proc. Fourth Int'l Conf. Quantative Evaluation of Systems, Sept. 2007.
[14] M.L. Fontenot, “Software Congestion, Mobile Servers, and the Hyperbolic Model,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 15, no. 8, pp.947-962, Aug. 1989.
[15] D.C. Petriu and C.M. Wodside, “Approximate MVA for Software Client/Server Models by Markov Chain Task-Directed Aggregation,” Proc. Third IEEE Symp. Parallel and Distributed Processing, Dec. 1991.
[16] S. Ramesh and H.G. Perros, “A Multi-Layer Client-Server Queueing Network Model with Synchronous and Asynchronous Messages,” Proc. First Int'l Workshop Software and Performance, pp.107-119, Oct. 1998.
[17] P. Kähkipuro, “UML Based Performance Modeling Framework for Object Oriented Systems,” Proc. UML '99, The Unified Modeling Language, Beyond the Standard, pp. 356-371, 1999.
[18] D.A. Menascé, “Two-Level Iterative Queuing Modeling of Software Contention,” Proc. 10th IEEE/ACM Int'l Symp. Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Computer and Telecomm. Systems, Oct. 2002.
[19] T. Kurasugi and I. Kino, “Approximation Methods for Two-Layer Queueing Models,” Performance Evaluation, vols. 36/37, pp. 55-70, Aug. 1999.
[20] R.G. Franks, “Performance Analysis of Distributed Server Systems,” PhD dissertation, Dept. of Systems and Computer Eng., Carleton Univ., Canada, Dec. 1999.
[21] P. Kähkipuro, “Performance Modeling Framework for Corba Based Distributed Systems,” PhD dissertation, Dept. of Computer Science, Univ. of Helsinki, http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu600340. html, May 2000.
[22] O. Das and M. Woodside, “Dependability Modeling of Selfhealing Client-Server Applications,” Architecting Dependable Systems II, R.D.Lemos, C. Gacek, and A. Romanovsky, eds., pp. 266-285, Dec. 2004.
[23] K.M. Chandy and D. Neuse, “Linearizer: A Heuristic Algorithm for Queueing Network Models of Computing Systems,” Comm. ACM, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 126-134, Feb. 1982.
[24] G. Franks, P. Maly, M. Woodside, D.C. Petriu, and A. Hubbard, Layered Queueing Network Solver and Simulator User Manual, Real-Time and Distributed Systems Lab, Carleton Univ., Canada, http://www.sce.carleton.ca/rads/lqnslqn-documentation /, 2009.
[25] A.M. Bayen, “Computational Control of Networks of Dynamical Systems: Application to the National Airspace System,” PhD dissertation, Stanford Univ., 2003.
[26] C.U. Smith, Performance Engineering of Software Systems. Addison Wesley, 1990.
[27] M. Reiser and S.S. Lavenberg, “Mean Value Analysis of Closed Multichain Queueing Networks,” J. ACM, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 313-322, Apr. 1980.
[28] A.M. Pan, “Solving Stochastic Rendezvous Networks of Large Client-Server Systems with Symmetric Replication,” master's thesis, Dept. of Systems and Computer Eng., Carleton Univ., Canada Sept. 1996.
[29] M. Reiser, “A Queueing Network Analysis of Computer Communication Networks with Window Flow Control,” IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 1199-1209, Aug. 1979.
[30] P. Heidelberger and K.S Trivedi, “Analytic Queueing Models for Programs with Internal Concurrency,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 73-82, Jan. 1983.
[31] V.W. Mak and S.F. Lundstrom, “Predicting Performance of Parallel Computations,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 257-270, July 1990.
[32] X. Jiang, “Evaluation of Approximation for Response Time of Parallel Task Graph Model,” master's thesis, Dept. of Systems and Computer Eng., Carleton Univ., Canada, Apr. 1996.
[33] A. Kumar, “Performance Analysis of A Hierarchical Quorum Consensus Algorithm for Replicated Objects,” Proc. 10th Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 378-385, 1990.
[34] M.L. Liu, D. Agrawal, and A.E. Abbadi, “On The Implementation of the Quorum Concensus Protocol,” Parallel and Distributed Computing Systems, 1995.
[35] R.A. Sahner and K.S. Trivedi, “Performance and Reliability Analysis Using Directed Acyclic Graphs,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 1105-1114, Oct. 1987.
[36] T. Omari, S. Derisavi, and G. Franks, “Deriving Distribution of Thread Service Time in Layered Queueing Networks,” Proc. Sixth Int'l Workshop Software and Performance, pp. 66-77, Feb. 2007.
[37] O. Das, “Dependability Modelling of Layered Systems,” PhD dissertation, Carleton Univ., Canada, 2004.
[38] Y. Dutuit and A. Rauzy, “Exact and Truncated Computations of Prime Implicants of Coherent and Non-Coherent Fault Trees within Aralia,” Reliability Eng. and System Safety, vol. 58, no. 2, pp.127-144, Nov. 1997.
[39] http://www.relex.com/products/pdfsrelex_ft_ds.pdf , 2009.
[40] D.C. Petriu, “Approximate Mean Value Analysis of Client-Server Systems with Multi-Class Requests,” Proc. 1994 ACM SIGMETRICS Conf. Measurement and Modeling of Computer Systems, pp. 77-86, May 1994.
[41] M. Litoiu, “Application Performance Evaluator and Resource Allocation Tool,” http://www.alphaworks.ibm.com/techapera, May 2003.
[42] Proc. First Int'l Workshop Software and Performance, Oct. 1998.
50 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool