This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
An Empirical Validation of Object-Oriented Metrics in Two Different Iterative Software Processes
November 2003 (vol. 29 no. 11)
pp. 1043-1049

Abstract—Object-oriented (OO) metrics are used mainly to predict software engineering activities/efforts such as maintenance effort, error proneness, and error rate. There have been discussions about the effectiveness of metrics in different contexts. In this paper, we present an empirical study of OO metrics in two iterative processes: the short-cycled agile process and the long-cycled framework evolution process. We find that OO metrics are effective in predicting design efforts and source lines of code added, changed, and deleted in the short-cycled agile process and ineffective in predicting the same aspects in the long-cycled framework process. This leads us to believe that OO metrics' predictive capability is limited to the design and implementation changes during the development iterations, not the long-term evolution of an established system in different releases.

[1] S.W. Ambler, Agile Modeling: Effective Practices for Extreme Programming and the Unified Process. Wiley, 2002.
[2] V.R. Basili, L.C. Briand, and W. Melo, "A Validation of Object-Oriented Design Metrics as Quality Indicators," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., Oct. 1996, pp. 751-761.
[3] V. Basili, L. Briand, S. Condon, Y. Kim, W. Melo, and J. Valett, Understanding and Predicting the Process of Software Maintenance Releases Proc. Eighth Int'l Conf. Software Eng. (ICSE-18), Mar. 1996.
[4] K. Beck, "Embracing Change with Extreme Programming," Computer, vol. 32, no. 10, Oct. 1999, pp. 70-77.
[5] S. Weisberg, Applied Linear Regression. John Wiley&Sons, 1985.
[6] W. Li and S. Henry, Maintenance Metrics for Object-Oriented Paradigm Proc. First Int'l Software Metrics Symp., pp. 52-60, May 1993.
[7] F. Fioravanto and P. Nesi, Estimation and Prediction Metrics for Adaptive Maintenance Effort of Object-Oriented Systems IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 1062-1084, Dec. 2001.
[8] L. Briand, S. Morasca, and V. Basili, "Defining and Validating High-Level Design Metrics," Technical Report CS-TR 3301, Univ. of Maryland, 1994; to be published in IEEE Trans. Software Eng.
[9] P. Nesi and T. Querci, "Effort Estimation and Prediction of Object-Oriented Systems," J. Systems and Software, to appear, 1998.
[10] S.R. Chidamber and C.F. Kemerer, "A Metrics Suite for Object Oriented Design," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 476-493, 1994.
[11] S. Moser, B. Henderson-Sellers, and V. Misi, Cost Estimation Based on Business Models, J. Systems and Software, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 33-42, 1999.
[12] T. Hastings and A. Sajeev, A Vector-Based Approach to Software Size Measurement and Effort Estimation IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 337-350, Apr. 2001.
[13] L. Briand and J. Wüst, Modeling Development Effort in Object-Oriented Systems Using Design Properties IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 963-986, Nov. 2001.
[14] H.D. Rombach, “A Controlled Experiment on the Impact of Software Structure on Maintainability,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., pp. 344-354, Mar. 1987.
[15] J. Fox, Applied Regression Analysis, Line Models, and Related Methods. AGE Publication, 1997.
[16] D.H. Rombach, "Design Measurement: Some Lessons Learned," IEEE Software, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 17-25, Mar. 1990.
[17] M. Hitz and B. Montazeri, "Chidamber&Kemerer's Metrics Suite: A Measurement Theory Perspective," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 276-270, 1996.
[18] W. Li and S. Henry, "Object-Oriented Metrics that Predict Maintainability," J. Systems Software, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1993, pp. 111-122.
[19] W. Li, Another Metric Suite for Object-Oriented Programming The J. Systems and Software, pp. 155-162, 1998.
[20] N.O.E. Fenton and M. Neil, “A Critique of Software Defect Prediction Models,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 675-689, Sept./Oct. 1999.
[21] D.C. Montgomery and E.A. Peck, Introduction to Linear Regression Analysis, second ed. Wiley series in probability and mathematical statistics, 1992.
[22] N. Fenton and N. Ohlsson, Quantitative Analysis of Faults and Failures in a Complex Software System IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 797-814, Aug. 2000.
[23] N.I. Churcher and M.J. Shepperd, "Comments on 'A Metrics Suite for Object-Oriented Design,'" IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 263-265, 1995.
[24] K. El Emam, W. Melo, and J. Machado, The Prediction of Faulty Classes Using Object-Oriented Design Metrics J. Systems and Software, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 63-75, 2001.
[25] W. Li, L. Etzkorn, C. Davis, and J. Talburt, An Empirical Study of Object-Oriented System Evolution Information and Software Technology, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 373-381, Apr. 2000.
[26] R. Harrison, S. Counsell, and R. Nithi, An Investigation into the Applicability and Validity of Object-Oriented Design Metrics Empirical Software Eng., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 255-273, 1998.
[27] M. Alshayeb, W. Li, and S. Graves, An Empirical Study of Refactoring, New Design, and Error-Fix Efforts in Extreme Programming Proc. Fifth World Multiconf. Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics (SCI 2001), 2001.
[28] W. Li and J. Talburt, Empirically Analysing Object-Oriented Software Evolution J. Object-Oriented Programming (JOOP), pp. 15-19, Sept. 1998.

Index Terms:
Software metrics, agile process, empirical validation, framework evolution.
Citation:
Mohammad Alshayeb, Wei Li, "An Empirical Validation of Object-Oriented Metrics in Two Different Iterative Software Processes," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 1043-1049, Nov. 2003, doi:10.1109/TSE.2003.1245305
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.