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CARISMA: Context-Aware Reflective mIddleware System for Mobile Applications
October 2003 (vol. 29 no. 10)
pp. 929-945
Wolfgang Emmerich, IEEE Computer Society
Cecilia Mascolo, IEEE Computer Society

Abstract—Mobile devices, such as mobile phones and personal digital assistants, have gained wide-spread popularity. These devices will increasingly be networked, thus enabling the construction of distributed applications that have to adapt to changes in context, such as variations in network bandwidth, battery power, connectivity, reachability of services and hosts, etc. In this paper, we describe CARISMA, a mobile computing middleware which exploits the principle of reflection to enhance the construction of adaptive and context-aware mobile applications. The middleware provides software engineers with primitives to describe how context changes should be handled using policies. These policies may conflict. We classify the different types of conflicts that may arise in mobile computing and argue that conflicts cannot be resolved statically at the time applications are designed, but, rather, need to be resolved at execution time. We demonstrate a method by which policy conflicts can be handled; this method uses a microeconomic approach that relies on a particular type of sealed-bid auction. We describe how this method is implemented in the CARISMA middleware architecture and sketch a distributed context-aware application for mobile devices to illustrate how the method works in practice. We show, by way of a systematic performance evaluation, that conflict resolution does not imply undue overheads, before comparing our research to related work and concluding the paper.

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Index Terms:
Middleware, mobile computing, reflection, context-awareness, conflict resolution, game theory, quality of service.
Citation:
Licia Capra, Wolfgang Emmerich, Cecilia Mascolo, "CARISMA: Context-Aware Reflective mIddleware System for Mobile Applications," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 929-945, Oct. 2003, doi:10.1109/TSE.2003.1237173
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