This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Efficient Online Schedulability Tests for Real-Time Systems
August 2003 (vol. 29 no. 8)
pp. 734-751

Abstract—Many computer systems, such as those for open system environments or multimedia services, need an efficient schedulability test for online admission control of new jobs. Although various polynomial time schedulability tests have been proposed, they often fail to decide the schedulability of the system precisely when the system is heavily loaded. On the other hand, most precise schedulability tests proposed to date have a high complexity and may not be suitable for online tests. In this paper, we present new efficient online schedulability tests for both the periodic process model and the multiframe process model in uniprocessor environments. The schedulability tests are shown to be more precise and efficient than any existing polynomial-time schedulability tests. Moreover, the tests can be done incrementally as each new task arrives at the system. Our proposed tests can also be used for the multiframe model where a task may have different computation times in different periods. We show the performance of the proposed schedulability tests in several simulation experiments.

[1] A.K. Mok and D. Chen, “A Multiframe Model for Real-Time Tasks,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 635-645, Oct. 1997.
[2] A. Burchard, J. Liebeherr, Y. Oh, and S.H. Son, “Assigning Real-Time Tasks to Homogeneous Multiprocessor Systems,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 1429-1442, Dec. 1995.
[3] A.M.K. Cheng and S. Rao, Real-Time Traffic Scheduling and Routing in Packet-Switched Networks using a Least-Laxity-First Strategy J. VLSI Signal Processing, 2003.
[4] B. Sprunt, “Aperiodic Task Scheduling for Real-Time Systems,” PhD dissertation, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Eng., Carnegie Mellon Univ., 1990.
[5] C.-C. Han and K.-J. Lin, “Scheduling Distance-Contrained Real-Time Tasks,” Proc. IEEE 13th Real-Time Systems Symp., pp. 300-308, Dec. 1992.
[6] C.-C. Han, H.y. Tyan, “A Better Polynomial-Time Schedulability Test for Real-Time Fixed-Priority Scheduling Algorithms,” Proc. IEEE Real-Time Systems Symp., pp. 36-45, Dec. 1997.
[7] C.-C. Han, “A Better Polynomial-Time Scheduleability Test for Real-Time Multiframe Tasks,” Proc. IEEE Real-Time Systems Symp., Dec. 1998.
[8] C.L. Liu and J.W. Layland, “Scheduling Algorithms for Multiprogramming in a Hard Real-Time Environment,” J. ACM, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 40-61, 1973.
[9] C. Wong and A.M.K. Cheng, An Approach for Imprecise Transmission of TIFF Image Files Through Congested Real-Time ATM Networks Proc. 22nd Int'l Conf. Local Computer Networks, 1997.
[10] C.Y. Wei, J.W. Hsieh, T.W. Kuo, I.H. Lee, Y.N. Wu, and M.C. Tsai, Resource Reservation and Enforcement for Framebuffer-Based Devices Proc. Ninth Int'l Conf. Real-Time and Embedded Computing Systems and Applications, 2003.
[11] C.D. Locke, D.R. Vogel, and T.J. Mesler, “Building a Predictable Avionics Platform in Ada: A Case Study,” Proc. IEEE 12th Real-Time Systems Symp., Dec. 1991.
[12] R.I. Davis, K.W. Tindell, and A. Burns, “Scheduling Slack Time in Fixed Priority Preemptive Systems,” Proc. Real-Time Systems Symp., pp. 222-231, 1993.
[13] D.I. Davis and A. Burns, Dual Priority Scheduling Proc. IEEE Real-Time Systems Symp., 1995.
[14] H.M. Vin, P. Goyal, A. Goyal, and A. Goyal, “A Statistical Admission Control Algorithm for Multimedia Servers,” ACM Multimedia, pp. 33–40, Oct. 1994.
[15] J. Lehoczky, L. Sha, and Y. Ding, The Rate Monotonic Scheduling Algorithm: Exact Characterization and Average Case Behavior Proc. IEEE Real-Time Systems Symp., pp. 166-171, 1989.
[16] J.S. Lin and R.H. Hwang, Piecewise Constant Bit Rate Transmission of MPEG Video on ATM Networks Proc. Workshop Real-Time and Media Systems, 1997.
[17] J.Y.T. Leung and J. Whitehead, On the Complexity of a Fixed-Priority Scheduling of Periodic, Real-Time Tasks Performance Evaluation, vol. 2, 1982.
[18] J.J. Molini, S.K. Maimon, and P.H. Watson, Real-Time System Scenarios Proc. IEEE Real-Time Systems Symp., 1991.
[19] K.J. Lin and A. Herkert, Jitter Control in Time-Triggered Systems Proc. 29th Hawaii Int'l Conf. System Sciences, 1996.
[20] K. Tindell, A. Burns, and A. Wellings, “An Extendible Approach for Analyzing Fixed Priority Hard Real-Time Tasks,” The J. Real-Time Systems, vol. 6, pp. 133–151, Mar. 1994.
[21] L. Sha, Distributed Real-Time System Design Using Generalized Rate Monotonic Theory lecture note, Software Eng. Inst., Carnegie Mellon Univ., 1992.
[22] L. Sha, R. Rajkuma, and J.P. Lehoczky, "Priority Inheritance Protocols: An Approach to Real-Time Synchronization," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 1,175-1,185, Sept. 1990.
[23] L.P. Chang and T.W. Kuo, A Real-Time Garbage Collection Mechanism for Flash-Memory Stroage Systems in Embedded Systems Proc. Eighth Int'l Conf. Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, 2002.
[24] L. Miller and A.M.K. Cheng, Admission of High Priority Real-Time Calls in an ATM Network via Bandwidth Reallocation and Dynamic Rerouting of Active Channels Proc. 21st IEEE Real-Time Systems Symp., 2000.
[25] M. Sjodin and H. Hansson, Analysing Multimedia Traffic in Real-Time ATM Networks Proc. IEEE Real-Time Technology and Application Symp., 1999.
[26] N. Kim, M. Ryu, S. Hong, M. Saksena, C.H. Choi, and H. Shin, “Visual Assessment of a Real-Time System Design: A Case Study on a CNC Controller,” Proc. IEEE Real-Time Systems Symp., pp. 300-310, Dec. 1996.
[27] N.I. Kamenoff and N.H. Weiderman, Hartstone Distributed Benchmark: Requirements and Definitions Proc. IEEE Real-Time Systems Symp., 1991.
[28] R.H. Hwang, S.L. Lee, T.W. Kuo, T.F. Chen, R.F. Chang, and J.J. Leou, A Hierarchical Video-On-Demand System on ATM Networks Proc. Workshops Comm. Networks, 1996.
[29] S. Rao and A.M.K. Cheng, Scheduling and Routing of Real-Time Multimedia Traffic in Packet-Switched Networks Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Multimedia and Expo, 2000.
[30] T.W. Kuo and A.K. Mok, Load Adjustment in Adaptive Real-Time Systems Proc. IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 16, no. 12, Dec. 1997.
[31] T.W. Kuo, S.L. Lee, Y.S. Lin, and Y.H. Liu, Providing Video-On-Demand Services on Windows NT Proc. Int'l Symp. Multimedia Information Processing, 1997.
[32] T.W. Kuo and C.H. Li, A Fixed-Priority-Driven Open Environment for Real-Time Applications Proc. IEEE 20th Real-Time Systems Symp., 1999.
[33] W. Shih and J. Liu, "On-Line Scheduling of Imprecise Computations to Minimize Error," Proc. Real-Time Systems Symp., Dec. 1992.
[34] W.R. Yang, S.K. Ni, Y.H. Liu, and T.W. Kuo, Supporting Fault-Tolerance and Load Balancing on Video-On-Demand Servers Proc. Third Workshop Real-Time and Media Systems, 1997.
[35] Z. Deng and J.W.-S. Liu, “Scheduling Real-Time Applications in an Open Environment,” Proc. IEEE Real-Time Systems Symp., Dec. 1997.

Index Terms:
Real-time systems, schedulability test, division graph, reduced set, multiframe process, open system environment, MPEG streams, time reservation.
Citation:
Tei-Wei Kuo, Li-Pin Chang, Yu-Hua Liu, Kwei-Jay Lin, "Efficient Online Schedulability Tests for Real-Time Systems," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 734-751, Aug. 2003, doi:10.1109/TSE.2003.1223647
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.