This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
CTTE: Support for Developing and Analyzing Task Models for Interactive System Design
August 2002 (vol. 28 no. 8)
pp. 797-813

Abstract—While task modeling and task-based design are entering into current practice in the design of interactive software applications, there is still a lack of tools supporting the development and analysis of task models. Such tools should provide developers with ways to represent tasks, including their attributes and objects and their temporal and semantic relationships, to easily create, analyze, and modify such representations and to simulate their dynamic behavior. In this paper, we present a tool, CTTE, that provides thorough support for developing and analyzing task models of cooperative applications, which can then be used to improve the design and evaluation of interactive software applications. We discuss how we have designed this environment and report on trials of its use.

[1] T. Bolognesi and E. Brinksma, “Introduction to the ISO Specification Language LOTOS,” Computer Network ISDN Systems, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 25-59, 1987.
[2] M. Biere, B. Bomsdorf, and G. Szwillus, “Specification and Simulation of Task Models with VTMB,” Proc. Computer-Human Interaction Conf. (CHI '99), pp. 1-2, 1999.
[3] L. Baumeister, B. John, and M. Byrne, “A Comparison of Tools for Building GOMS Models,” Proc. Computer-Human Interaction Conf. (CHI '00), pp. 502-509, 2000.
[4] P. Barclay, T. Griffiths, J. McKirfy, N. Paton, R. Cooper, and J. Kennedy, “The Teallach Tool: Using Models for Flexible User Interface Design,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Computer-Aided Design of User Interfaces (CADUI '99), pp. 139-158, 1999.
[5] F. Bodart, A. Hennerbert, J. Leheureux, and J. Vanderdonckt, “A Model-Based Approach to Presentation: A Continuum from Task Analysis to Prototype,” Proc. Int'l Eurographics Workshop Design, Specification, and Verification of Interactive Systems (DSV-IS '94), pp. 77-94, 1994.
[6] R. Bastide and P. Palanque, “A Visual and Formal Glue between Application and Interaction,” Int'l J. Visual Language and Computing, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 481-507, 1999.
[7] G. Booch, J. Rumbaugh, and I. Jacobson, Unified Modeling Language Reference Manual. Addison-Wesley, 1999.
[8] B. Bomsdorf and G. Szwillus, “Tool Support for Task-Based User Interface Design,” Proc. Computer-Human Interaction Conf. (CHI '99), pp. 169-170, 1999.
[9] S. Card, T. Moran, and A. Newell, The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1983.
[10] G. Calvary, J. Coutaz, and L. Nigay, “From Single-User Architectural Design to PAC*: A Generic Software Architectural Model for CSCW,” Proc. Computer-Human Interaction Conf. (CHI '97), pp. 242-249, 1997.
[11] G. Calvary, J. Coutaz, and D. Thevenin, “A Unifying Reference Framework for the Development of Plastic User Interfaces,” Proc. Eng. Human-Computer Interaction Conf. (HCI '01), pp. 218-238, 2001.
[12] C. Ellis and J. Wainer, “A Conceptual Model of Groupware,” Proc. ACM Conf. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW'94), R. Furuta and C. Neuwirth, eds., pp. 79-88, 1994.
[13] J. Foley and N. Sukaviriya, “History, Results, and Bibliography of the User Interface Design Environment (UIDE), an Early Model-Based System for User Interface Design and Development,” Interactive Systems: Design, Specification, Verification, F. Pater no ed., pp. 3-14, 1994.
[14] J. Fernandez, H. Garavel, A. Kerbrat, R. Mateescu, L. Mounier, and M. Sighireanu, “CADP (CAESAR/ALDEBARAN Development Package): A Protocol Validation and Verification Toolbox,” Proc. Eighth Conf. Computer-Aided Verification, pp. 437-440, 1996.
[15] E. Gamma, R. Helm, R. Johnson, and J. Vlissides, Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software. Addison-Wesley, 1995.
[16] T. Green and M. Petre, “Usability Analysis of Visual Programming Environments: A `Cognitive Dimensions' Framework,” J. Visual Languages and Computing, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 131-174, June 1996.
[17] R. Hartson and P. Gray, “Temporal Aspects of Tasks in the User Action Notation,” Human Computer Interaction, vol. 7, pp. 1-45, 1992.
[18] N. Leveson, “Intent Specifications: An Approach to Building Human-Centered Specification,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 15-35, Jan. 2000.
[19] Q. Limbourg, B. Ait El Hadj, J. Vanderdonckt, G. Keymolen, and E. Mbaki, “Towards Derivation of Presentation and Dialogue from Models: Preliminary Results,” Proc. Int'l Eurographics Workshop Design, Specification, and Verification of Interactive Systems (DSV-IS '00), pp. 227-248, 2000.
[20] A. Lecerof and F. Paternò, “Automatic Support for Usability Evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 863-888, Oct. 1998.
[21] N. Numes and J. Falcao, “Towards a UML Profile for User Interface Development: The Wisdom Approach,” Proc. Unified Modeling Language Conf. (UML '00), pp. 50-58, 2000.
[22] F. Paternò, Model-Based Design and Evaluation of Interactive Application. Springer Verlag, 1999.
[23] F. Paternò, “Towards a UML for Interactive Systems,” Proc. Eng. Human-Computer Interaction Conf. (HCI '01), pp. 175-185, 2001.
[24] F. Paternò and C. Mancini, “Designing Usable Hypermedia,” Empirical Software Eng., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 11-42, 1999.
[25] A. Puerta, E. Cheng, T. Ou, and J. Min, “MOBILE: User-Centred Interface Building,” Proc. Computer-Human Interaction (CHI '99), pp. 426-433, 1999.
[26] F. Paternò, C. Santoro, and V. Sabbatino, “Using Information in Task Models to Support Design of Interactive Safety-Critical Applications,” Proc. Advanced Visual Interfaces Int'l Working Conf. (AVI '00), pp. 120-127, May 2000.
[27] M. Roseman and S. Greenberg, “Building Real-Time Groupware with GroupKit, A Gropware Toolkit,” ACM Trans. Computer-Human Interaction, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 66-106, Mar. 1996.
[28] D. Scapin and C. Pierret-Golbreich, “Towards a Method for Task Descrption: MAD,” Proc. Work with Display Unit, pp. 78-92, 1989.
[29] A. Sutcliffe, “Task-Related Information Analysis,” Int'l J. Human-Computer Studies, vol. 47, pp. 223-257, 1997.
[30] P. Szekely, P. Luo, and R. Neches, “Beyond Interface Builders: Model-Based Interface Tools,” Proc. Conf. Human Factors and Computing Systems (INTERCHI '93), pp. 383-390, 1993.
[31] G. van der Veer, B. Lenting, and B. Bergevoet, “GTA: Groupware Task Analysis—Modeling Complexity,” Acta Psychologica, vol. 91, pp. 297-322, 1996.
[32] M. van Welie, G.C. van der Veer, and A. Eliëns, “An Ontology for Task World Models,” Proc. Int'l Eurographics Workshop Design, Specification, and Verification of Interactive Systems (DSV-IS '98), pp. 57-70, 1998.
[33] S. Wilson, P. Johnson, C. Kelly, J. Cunningham, and P. Markopoulos, “Beyond Hacking: A Model-Based Approach to User Interface Design,” Proc. Eng. Human-Computer Interaction Conf. (HCI '93), pp. 40-48, 1993.

Index Terms:
Task models, models for interactive software systems, automatic tools for human-computer interaction, user interfaces.
Giulio Mori, Fabio Paternò, Carmen Santoro, "CTTE: Support for Developing and Analyzing Task Models for Interactive System Design," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 797-813, Aug. 2002, doi:10.1109/TSE.2002.1027801
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.