This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Integration of Sequential Scenarios
September 1998 (vol. 24 no. 9)
pp. 695-708

Abstract—We give a formal relation-based definition of scenarios and we show how different scenarios can be integrated to obtain a more global view of user-system interactions. We restrict ourselves to the sequential case, meaning that we suppose that there is only one user (thus, the scenarios we wish to integrate cannot occur concurrently). Our view of scenarios is state-based, rather than event-based, like most of the other approaches, and can be grafted to the well-established specification language Z. Also, the end product of scenario integration, the specification of the functional aspects of the system, is given as a relation; this specification can be refined using independently developed methods. Our formal description is coupled with a diagram-based, transition-system like, presentation of scenarios, which is better suited to communication between clients and specifiers.

[1] K.M. Benner, M.S. Feather, W.L. Johnson, and L.A. Zorman, "Utilizing Scenarios in the Software Development Process," Information System Development Process, Elsevier Science, B.V. North-Holland, pp. 117-134, 1993.
[2] R. Berghammer and G. Schmidt, "The RELVIEW-System," Proc. STACS 91, Eighth Ann. Symp. Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science, C. Choffrut and M. Jantzen, eds., Lecture Notes in Computer Science 480, pp. 535-536, Springer-Verlag, Feb. 1991.
[3] E. Boiten, J. Derrick, H. Bowman, and M. Steen, "Consistency and Refinement for Partial Specification in Z," FME'96: Industrial Benefit of Formal Methods, Third Int'l Symp. Formal Methods Europe, M. Gaudel and J. Woodcock, eds., Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1,051, pp. 287-306, Springer-Verlag, Mar. 1996.
[4] A. Borgida, J. Mylopoulos, and R. Reiter, "And Nothing Else Changes: The Frame Problem in Procedure Specifications," Proc. 15th IEEE Int'l Conf. Software Eng.,Baltimore, pp. 303-314, May 1993.
[5] N. Boudriga, F. Elloumi, and A. Mili, "On the Lattice of Specifications: Applications to a Specification Methodology," Formal Aspects of Computing, vol. 4, pp. 544-571, 1992.
[6] C. Brink, W. Kahl, and G. Schmidt, eds., Relational Methods in Computer Science. Springer-Verlag, 1997.
[7] R.L. Campbell, "Will the Real Scenario Please Stand up?," ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 6-8, Apr. 1992.
[8] R.L. Campbell, "Categorizing Scenarios: A Quixotic Quest?" ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 16-17, Oct. 1992.
[9] C.A. Damon, D. Jackson, and S. Jha, "Checking Relational Specifications with Binary Decision Diagrams," ACM SIGSOFT Software Eng. Notes, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 70-80, Nov. 1996.
[10] A. Dardenne, A. van Lamsweerde, and S. Fickas, "Goal-Directed Requirements Acquisition," Science of Computer Programming, pp. 3-50, vol. 20, Apr. 1993.
[11] J. Desharnais, N. Belkhiter, S. Ben Mohamed Sghaier, F. Tchier, A. Jaoua, A. Mili, and N. Zaguia, "Embedding a Demonic Semilattice in a Relation Algebra," Theoretical Computer Science, vol. 149, no. 2, pp. 333-360, Oct. 1995.
[12] J. Desharnais, A. Mili, and T.T. Nguyen, "Refinement and Demonic Semantics," Brink et al. [6], ch. 11, pp. 166-183.
[13] A. Diller, "Z: An Introduction to Formal Methods. John Wiley&Sons, 1990.
[14] M. Frappier, A. Mili, and J. Desharnais, "Program Construction by Parts," Scientific Computing Programming, vol. 26, no. 1-3, pp. 237-254, May 1996.
[15] M. Glinz, "An Integrated Formal Model of Scenarios Based on Statecharts," Proc. ESEC'95—Fourth European Software Eng. Conf., Lecture Notes in Computer Science 989, Springer-Verlag, 1995.
[16] D. Harel, “Statecharts: A Visual Approach to Complex Systems,” Science of Computer Programming, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 231–274, 1987.
[17] D. Harel, "On the Formal Semantics of Statecharts," Proc. Second IEEE Symp. on Logic in Computer Science,Ithaca, New York, pp. 54-64, 1987.
[18] D. Harel, "On Visual Formalisms," Comm. ACM, May 1988, pp. 514-530.
[19] H. Holbrook III, "A Scenario-Based Methodology for Conducting Requirements Elicitation," ACM SIGSOFT Software Eng. Notes, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 95-104, Jan. 1990.
[20] J.J.M. Hooman, S. Ramesh, and W.P. de Roever, "A Compositional Axiomatization of Statecharts," Theoretical Computing Science, vol. 101, pp. 289-335, 1992.
[21] P. Hsia, J. Samuel, J. Gao, D. Kung, Y. Toyoshima, and C. Chen, "Formal Approach to Scenario Analysis," IEEE Software, pp. 33-41, Mar. 1994.
[22] R. Janicki, D.L. Parnas, and J. Zucker, "Tabular Representations in Relational Documents," Brink et al. [6], ch. 12, pp. 184-196.
[23] I. Kawashita, "Spécification formelle de systèmes d'information interactifs par la technique des scénarios," MS thesis, Département d'informatique et de recherche opérationnelle, Universitéde Montréal, Montréal, Nov. 1996.
[24] R. Lalement and J. Plaice (trans.), Computation as Logic.Hemel Hempstead, UK: Prentice Hall, 1993.
[25] L. Lamport, "TLA in Pictures," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 768-775, Sept. 1995.
[26] M. Lubars, C. Potts, and C. Richter, "Developing Initial OOA Models," Proc. 15th IEEE Int'l Conf. Software Eng., pp. 255-264, IEEE, 1993.
[27] F. Lustman, "A Formal Approach to Scenario Integration," Annals Software Eng., vol. 3, 1997.
[28] Y.V. Matiyasevich, "Hilbert's Tenth Problem," Foundations of Computing.Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1993.
[29] J. McCarthy and P. Hayes, "Some Philosophical Problems from the Standpoint of Artificial Intelligence," Machine Intelligence, B. Melzter and D. Michie, eds., vol. 4, pp. 463-502.Scotland: Edinburgh Univ. Press, 1969.
[30] G. Mealy, "A Method for Synthesizing Sequential Circuits," Bell System Tech. J., vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 1,045-1,079, Sept. 1955.
[31] I. Meisels and M. Saaltink, "The Z/EVES Reference Manual (for Version 1.5)," Technical Report TR-97-5493-03d, ORA Canada, 267 Richmond Road, Suite 100, Ottawa, ON K1Z 6X3, Canada, Sept. 1997. http:/
[32] A. Mili, "A Relational Approach to the Design of Deterministic Programs," Acta Informatica, vol. 20, pp. 315-328, 1983.
[33] A. Mili, J. Desharnais, and F. Mili, "Relational Heuristics for the Design of Deterministic Programs," Acta Informatica, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 239-276, 1987.
[34] A. Mili, J. Desharnais, and F. Mili, Computer Program Construction.New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1994.
[35] D.L. Parnas, J. Madey, and M. Iglewski, "Precise Documentation of Well-Structured Programs," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 948-976, Dec. 1994.
[36] K.S. Rubin and J. Goldberg, "Object Behaviour Analysis," Comm. ACM, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 48-62, Sept. 1992.
[37] J. Rushby, "Mechanizing Formal Methods: Opportunities and Challenges," Proc. Ninth Int'l Conf. Z Users (ZUM'95),Limerick, Ireland, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 967, pp. 105-113, Springer-Verlag, Sept. 1995.
[38] J. Rushby, "Automated Deduction and Formal Methods," Proc. Conf. Computer-Aided Verification (CAV'96). Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1,102, pp. 169-183, Springer-Verlag, July 1996.
[39] G. Schmidt, "Programs as Partial Graphs I: Flow Equivalence and Correctness," Theoretical Computer Science, vol. 15, pp. 1-25, 1981.
[40] G. Schmidt and T. Ströhlein, Relations and Graphs, Monographs on Theoretical Computer Science. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1993.
[41] B. Selic, G. Gullekson, and P. Ward, Real-Time Object-Oriented Modeling, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1994.
[42] S. Somé, R. Dssouli, and J. Vaucher, "From Scenarios to Timed Automata: Building Specifications from Users Requirements," Proc. Second Asia Pacific Software Eng. Conf., APSEC'95, 1995.
[43] J.M. Spivey, Understanding Z: A Specification Language and Its Formal Semantics, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1988.
[44] L. Wos, R. Overbeek, E. Lusk, and J. Boyle, Automated Reasoning: Introduction and Applications.New York: McGraw-Hill, 1992.

Index Terms:
Scenario, integration, user-system interaction, requirements elicitation, relational approach, state-based approach.
Jules Desharnais, Marc Frappier, Ridha Khédri, Ali Mili, "Integration of Sequential Scenarios," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 695-708, Sept. 1998, doi:10.1109/32.713325
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.