This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Parametric Graph Drawing
August 1995 (vol. 21 no. 8)
pp. 662-673
A diagram is a drawing on the plane that represents a graph-like structure, where nodes are represented by symbols and edges are represented by curves connecting pairs of symbols. An automatic layout facility is a tool that receives as input a graph-like structure and is able to produce a diagram that nicely represents such a structure. Many systems use diagrams in the interaction with the users; thus, automatic layout facilities and algorithms for graphs layout have been extensively studied in the last years. We present a new approach in designing an automatic layout facility. Our approach is based on a modular management of a large collection of algorithms and on a strategy that, given the requirements of an application, selects a suitable algorithm for such requirements. The proposed approach has been used for designing the automatic layout facility of Diagram Server, a network server that offers to its clients several facilities for managing diagrams.

[1] M. Angelaccio, T. Catarci, and G. Santucci, “QBD*: A Graphical Query Language with Recursion,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 16, no. 10, Oct. 1990.
[2] C. Batini, E. Nardelli, and R. Tamassia, “A Layout Algorithm for Data Flow Diagrams,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 538-546, 1986.
[3] C. Batini,M. Talamo,, and R. Tamassia,“Computer aided layout of entity-relationship diagrams,” J. of Systems and Software, vol. 4, pp. 163-173, 1984.
[4] P. Bertolazzi,G. Di Battista,, and G. Liotta,“Parametric graph drawing,” Tech. Rep. Progetto Finalizzato Sist. Informatici e Calc. Par., 6/67, 1992.
[5] P. Bertolazzi,G. Di Battista,G. Liotta,, and C. Mannino,“Upward drawings of triconnected digraphs,” Algorithmica, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 476-497, 1994.
[6] B. Birgisson and G. Shannon,“Graph-view: A workstation-based environment for viewing graphs andanimating graph algorithms,” Tech. Rep. 295, Dept. of Computer Science, Indiana Univ., 1989.
[7] M.H. Brown, Zeus: A System for Algorithm Animation and Multi-View Editing Proc. 1991 IEEE Workshop Visual Languages, pp. 4-9, Oct. 1991.
[8] G. Canfora and F. Vargiu,“Reverse-engineering, reuse-engineering, and visual environments: The VAPSproject,” Proc. of Workshop on Reverse Engineering, pp. 141-175,Portici, Italy, 1991.
[9] M.J. Carpano,“Automatic display of hierarchized graphs for computer-aided decisionanalysis,” IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 705-715, 1980.
[10] N. Chiba,K. Onoguchi,, and T. Nishizeki,“Drawing plane graphs nicely,” Acta Informatica, vol. 22, pp. 187-201, 1985.
[11] M. Chrobak and T.H. Payne,“A linear-time algorithm for drawing a planar graph on a grid,” manuscript, Univ. of California at Riverside, 1989.
[12] Common View Reference Manual, 1990.
[13] I.F. Cruz,A.O. Mendelzon,, and P.T. Wood,“G+: Recursive queries without recursion,” Proc. 2nd Int’l Conf. on Expert Database Systems, pp. 355-368, 1988.
[14] R. Davidson and D. Harel,“Drawing graphs nicely using simulated annealing,” Tech. Rep., Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science,Weizman Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel, 1989.
[15] H. de Fraysseix,J. Pach,, and R. Pollak,“Small sets supporting Fary embeddings of planar graphs,” Proc. ACM Symp. on Theory of Computing, pp. 426-433, 1988.
[16] G. DiBattista, P. Eades, R. Tamassia, and I.G. Tollis, "Algorithms for Drawing Graphs: An Annotated Bibliography," Computational Geometry: Theory and Applications, vol. 4, no 5, pp. 235-282, 1994. Also available via anonymous ftp from,, andin.
[17] G. Di Battista,A. Gianmarco,G. Santucci,, and R. Tamassia,“The architecture of diagram server,” Proc. 1990 IEEE Workshop on Visual Languages,Skokie, Ill., pp. 60-65, 1990.
[18] G. Di Battista,E. Pietrosanti,R. Tamassia,, and I.G. Tollis,“Automatic layout of PERT diagrams with X-PERT,” Proc. 1989 IEEE Workshop on Visual Languages, pp. 171-176,Rome, 1989.
[19] G. Di Battista and R. Tamassia,“Algorithms for plane representations of acyclic digraphs,” Theoretical Computer Science, vol. 61, pp. 175-198, 1988.
[20] G. Di Battista,R. Tamassia,, and I.G. Tollis,“Area requirements and symmetry display in drawing graphs,” Discrete and Computational Geometry, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 381-401, 1992.
[21] C. Ding and P. Mateti,“A framework for the automated drawing of data structure diagrams,” IEEE Trans. on Software Engineering, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 543-557, 1990.
[22] P. Eades,“SPREMB,” Tech. Rep. 85, Dept. of Computer Science, Univ. of Queensland, 1987.
[23] P. Eades, personal communication, June 1992.
[24] R. Gould,Graph Theory.Menlo Park, Calif.: Benjamin and Cummings, 1988.
[25] W. Graf,“Constraint-based graphical layout of multimodal presentations,” Proc. Advanced Visual Interfaces, pp. 365-385,Rome, 1992.
[26] J. Hopcroft and R. Tarjan,“Efficient planarity testing,” J. of ACM., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 549-568, 1974.
[27] M.Y. Hsueh,“Symbolic layout and compaction of integrated circuits,” PhD Thesis, Univ. of California, Berkeley, 1979.
[28] J. Hynd and P. Eades,“The typed graph editing system_TYGES,” Proc. 3rd Australasian Conf. on Computer Graphics (Ausgraph 85), pp. 15-19,Brisbane, Australia, 1985.
[29] IEW/ADW User Manual (Planning, Analysis and Design).Atlanta: K nowledgeware, 1992.
[30] Ipsys Reference Manual.London: Ipsys Software Plc., 1992.
[31] T. Kamada,Visualizing Abstract Objects and Relations, World Scientific Publishers, Series in Computer Science, vol. 5, 1989.
[32] S. Khoshafian and R. Abnous,Object Orientation.New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1990.
[33] T. Lin, PhD Thesis, Univ. of Newcastle, 1993.
[34] Mast_ER User Manual, GESI GEstione Sistemi per l’Informatica, Rome, 1987.
[35] E.B. Messinger,L.A. Rowe,, and R.R. Henry,“A divide-and-conquer algorithm for the automatic layout of large directedgraphs,” IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 1-21, 1991.
[36] E. Nardelli and M. Talamo,“A fast algorithm for planarization of sparse diagrams,” Tech. Rep. R.105 IASI-CNR, 1984.
[37] F. Paulisch and W. Tichy, “EDGE: An Extendible Graph Editor,” Software—Practice and Experience, vol. 20, pp. 63-88, 1990.
[38] Predict-Case Reference Manual, Software AG, 1992.
[39] L. Protsko, P. Sorenson, J. Tremblay, and D. Schaefer, “Towards the Automatic Generation of Software Diagrams,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 10-21, Jan. 1991.
[40] R. Read,“New methods for drawing a planar graph given the cyclic order ofthe edges at each node,” Congressus Numerantium, vol. 56, pp. 31-44, 1987.
[41] E.M. Reingold and J.S. Tilford,“Tidier drawings of trees,” IEEE Trans. on Software Engineering, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 223-228, 1981.
[42] P. Rosenstiehl and R.E. Tarjan,“Rectilinear planar layouts and bipolar orientations of planargraphs,” Discrete Computational Geometry, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 343-353, 1986.
[43] L.A. Rowe,M. Davis,E. Messinger,C. Meyer,C. Spirakis,, and A. Tuan,“A browser for directed graphs,” Software-Practice and Experience, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 61-76, 1987.
[44] W. Schnyder,“Embedding planar graphs on the grid,” Proc. ACM-SIAM Symp. on Discrete Algorithms, pp. 138-141, 1990.
[45] B. Shriver and P. Wegner,Research Directions in Object-Oriented Programming, Comp. Syst. Series. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1987.
[46] J. Stasko,“The tango algorithms animation system,” Tech. Rep. Brown Univ. CS 88-20, 1988.
[47] K. Sugiyama,S. Tagawa,, and M. Toda,“Methods for visual understanding of hierarchical systemstructures,” IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 109-125, 1981.
[48] R. Tamassia, “On Embedding a Graph in the Grid with the Minimum Number of Bends,” SIAM J. Computing, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 421-444, 1987.
[49] R. Tamassia, G. Di Battista, and C. Batini, “Automatic Graph Drawing and Readability of Diagrams,” IEEE Trans. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 61-79, 1988.
[50] R. Tamassia and I.G. Tollis,“A unified approach to visibility representations of planar graphs,” Discrete and Computational Geometry, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 321-341, 1986.
[51] R. Tamassia and I.G. Tollis, "Planar Grid Embeddings in Linear Time," IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems, vol. 36, pp. 1,230-1,234, 1989.
[52] W.T. Tutte,“Convex representations of graphs,” Proc. London Math. Soc., vol. 10, pp. 743-768, 1963.
[53] XVT Reference Manual.

Index Terms:
Automatic layout facility, diagram, graph drawing algorithm.
Citation:
Paola Bertolazzi, Giuseppe Di Battista, Giuseppe Liotta, "Parametric Graph Drawing," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 662-673, Aug. 1995, doi:10.1109/32.403790
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.