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Formal Methods Reality Check: Industrial Usage
February 1995 (vol. 21 no. 2)
pp. 90-98
Based on a systematic survey and analysis of the use of formal methods in the development of a dozen industrial applications, we summarize the methods being used, characterize the styles of industrial usage, and provide recommendations for evolutionary enhancements to the technology base of formal methods.The industrial applications ranged from reverse engineering to system certification; code scale ranges from 1 KLOC to 10 KLOC's. Applications included a software infrastructure for oscilloscopes; a shutdown system for a nuclear generating station; a train protection system; an airline collision avoidance system; an engine monitoring system for shipboard engines; attitude control of satellites; security properties of both a smartcard device and a network; arithmetic units; transaction processing; a real-time database for a medical instrument; and a restructuring program for COBOL.

[1] D. Craigen, S. Gerhart, and T. Ralston,“An international survey of industrial applications of formal methods,”U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Mar. 1993, Tech. Rep. NIST GCR 93/626 (vols. 1 and 2). Also published by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (Formal Rep. 5546-93-9582, Sept. 1993), and the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada.
[2] D. Craigen, S. Kromodimoeljo, B. Pase, M. Saaltink, and I. Meisels,“The EVES system,”inMcMaster International Lecture Series on Functional Programming, Concurrency, Simulation and Automated Reasoning,Peter Lauer, Ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1993.
[3] S. Gerhart, D. Craigen, and T. Ralston,“Formal methods in critical systems,”IEEE Software,Jan. 1994.
[4] S. Gerhart, D. Craigen, and T. Ralston,“Observations on industrial practice using formal methods,”inProc. 15th Int. Conf. Software Eng.,Baltimore, MD, May 1993.
[5] Proc. VDM'91,Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands, 1991.

Index Terms:
Formal methods, formal verification, industrial applications, real-time systems, safety-critical systems, technology assessment, validation, and verification
Citation:
Dan Craigen, Susan Gerhart, Ted Ralston, "Formal Methods Reality Check: Industrial Usage," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 90-98, Feb. 1995, doi:10.1109/32.345825
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