This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
A Framework for Expressing the Relationships Between Multiple Views in Requirements Specification
October 1994 (vol. 20 no. 10)
pp. 760-773

Composite systems are generally comprised of heterogeneous components whose specifications are developed by many development participants. The requirements of such systems are invariably elicited from multiple perspectives that overlap, complement, and contradict each other. Furthermore, these requirements are generally developed and specified using multiple methods and notations, respectively. It is therefore necessary to express and check the relationships between the resultant specification fragments. We deploy multiple ViewPoints that hold partial requirements specifications, described and developed using different representation schemes and development strategies. We discuss the notion of inter-ViewPoint communication in the context of this ViewPoints framework, and propose a general model for ViewPoint interaction and integration. We elaborate on some of the requirements for expressing and enacting inter-ViewPoint relationships-the vehicles for consistency checking and inconsistency management. Finally, though we use simple fragments of the requirements specification method CORE to illustrate various components of our work, we also outline a number of larger case studies that we have used to validate our framework. Our computer-based ViewPoints support environment, The Viewer, is also briefly described.

[1] R. Ahmed, P. De Smedt, W. Du, W. Kent, M. Ketabchi, W. Litwin, A. Rafii, and M. Shan, "The Pegasus heterogeneous multidatabase system,"IEEE Comput., vol. 24, pp. 19-27, Dec. 1991.
[2] M. Ainsworth, A. H. Cruickshank, L. G. Groves, and P. J. L. Wallis, "Viewpoint specification andZ," Inform. Software Technol., vol. 36, pp. 43-51, Feb. 1994.
[3] L. A. R. Ballesteros, "Using ViewPoints to support the FUSION object-oriented method," M.Sc. thesis, Dept. of Computing, Imperial College, London, England, UK, Sept. 1992.
[4] R. Balzer, "Tolerating inconsistency,"Proc. 13th Int. Conf. Software Eng. (ICSE-13), 1991, pp. 158-165.
[5] N. Barghouti, "Supporting cooperation in the MARVEL process-centered environment," inProc. ACM SIGSOFT Symp. Software Dev. Environments, reprinted inACM Software Eng. Notes, vol. 17, pp. 21-31, Dec. 1992.
[6] M. W. Bright, A. R. Hurson, and S. H. Pakzad, "A taxonomy and current issues in multidatabase systems,"IEEE Comput., vol. 25, pp. 50-60, Mar. 1992.
[7] W. Butcher, "ICDC: An implementation of dialogue in Smalltalk-80," MSc. thesis, Dept. of Computing, Imperial College, London, England, UK, Sept. 1988.
[8] J. Castro and A. Finkelstein, "VSCS: An object oriented method for requirements elicitation and formalisation," FOREST Project Rep. NFR/WP2.2/IC/R/002/A, Dept. of Computing, Imperial College, London, England, UK, Oct. 1991.
[9] G. Clemm and L. Osterweil, "A mechanism for environment integration,"ACM Trans. Programming Languages Syst., vol. 12, pp. 1-25, Jan. 1990.
[10] D. Coleman, P. Arnold, S. Bodoff, C. Dollin, H. Gilchrist, F. Hayes, and P. Jeremaes,Object-Oriented Development: The Fusion Method. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993.
[11] R. Cunningham, A. Finkelstein, S. Goldsack, T. Maibaum, and C. Potts, "Formal requirements specification: The FOREST project," inProc. 3rd Int. Workshop on Software Specification and Design(IWSSD-3), 1985.
[12] A. Dardenne, S. Fickas, and A. van Lamsweerde, "Goal-directed requirements acquisition,"Sci. Comput. Programming, vol. 20, pp. 3-50, 1993.
[13] K. R. Dittrich, "The DAMOLKLES database system for design applications: Its past, its present, and its future, " in K. H. Bennett, Ed.,Software Engineering Environments: Research and Practice, Chichester, UK: Ellis Horwood, 1989, pp. 151-171.
[14] E. Doerry, S. Fickas, R. Helm, and M. Feather, "A model for composite system design,"Proc. 6th Int. Workshop on Software Specification and Design(IWSSD-6), 1991, pp. 216-219.
[15] S. Easterbrook, "Domain modelling with hierarchies of alternative viewpoints,"Proc. Int. Symp. Requirements Eng. (RE'93), 1993, pp. 65-72.
[16] S. Easterbrook, A. Finkelstein, J. Kramer, and B. Nuseibeh, "Coordinating distributed ViewPoints: The anatomy of a consistency check," inConcurrent Engineering: Research and Applications, West Bloomfield, IL: CERA Inst., to appear.
[17] S. M. Easterbrook, "Elicitation of requirements from multiple perspectives," Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. of Computing, Imperial College, London, England, UK, June 1991.
[18] Feather, M., "Language Support for the Specification and Development of Composite Systems,"ACM Trans. Programming Languages, Vol. 9, No. 2, Apr. 1987, pp. 198-234.
[19] M. S. Feather, "Constructing specifications by combining parallel elaborations,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 15, pp. 198-208, Feb. 1989.
[20] A. Finkelstein and H. Fuchs, "Multiparty specification," in5th Int. Workshop on Software Specification and Design(Pittsburgh, PA), Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Soc. Press, 1989, pp. 185-195.
[21] A. Finkelstein, D. Gabbay, A. Hunter, J. Kramer, and B. Nuseibeh, "Inconsistency handling in multi-perspective specifications,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 20, pp. 569-578, Aug. 1994.
[22] A. Finkelstein, J. Kramer, and B. Nuseibeh, Eds.,Software Process Modelling and Technology, Advanced Software Development Series, Somerest, England, UK: Research Studies Press (Wiley), 1994.
[23] A. Finkelstein, J. Kramer, B. Nuseibeh, L. Finkelstein, and M. Goedicke, "Viewpoints: A framework for integrating multiple perspectives in system development,"Int. J. Software Eng. Knowl. Eng., vol. 2, pp. 31-58, Mar. 1992.
[24] D. Gabbay and A. Hunter, "Making inconsistency respectable: A logical framework for inconsistency in reasoning, Part I--A position paper,"Proc. Fundamentals of Art. Intell. Res. '91, 1991, pp. 19-32.
[25] P. Graubmann, "Definition of SPEC nets," REX Tech. Rep. REX-WP3- SIE-008-V1.0, Siemens AG, Germany, July 1990.
[26] P. Graubmann, "The HyperView tool standard methods," REX Tech. Rep. REX-WP3-SIE-021-V1.0, Siemens AG, Germany, Jan. 1992.
[27] P. Graubmann, "The Petri net method ViewPoints in the HyperView tool," REX Tech. Rep. REX-WP3-SIE-023.V1.0, Siemens AG, Germany, Jan. 1992.
[28] C.A.R. Hoare,Communicating Sequential Processes, Prentice Hall, Englewood, N.J., 1985.
[29] M. Jackson, "Some complexities in computer-based systems and their implications for system development,"Proc. Int. Conf. Comput. Syst. Software Eng.(CompEuro'90), 1990, pp. 344-351.
[30] M. Jarke, "Strategies for integrating CASE environments,"IEEE Software, vol. 35, pp. 54-61, Mar. 1992.
[31] G. Kotonya and I. Sommerville, "Viewpoints for requirements definition,"J. Software Eng., vol. 7, pp. 375-387, Nov. 1992.
[32] J. Kramer, "A configurable framework for method and tool integration,"Proc. European Symp. Software Dev. Environments and CASE Technol., 1991, pp. 233-257.
[33] J. Kramer, J. Magee, and A. Finkelstein, "A constructive approach to the design of distributed systems," inProc. 10th Int. Conf. Distributed Computing Systems, May 1990.
[34] J. Kramer, J. Magee, K. Ng, and M. Sloman, "The system architect's assistant for design and construction of distributed systems,"Proc. 4th Workshop on Future Trends of Distrib. Computing Syst., 1993, pp. 284-290.
[35] F.K. Lai, "CORE in The Viewer," M.Sc. thesis, Dept. of Computing, Imperial College, London, England, UK, Sept. 1993.
[36] J. C. S. P. Leite and P. A. Freeman, "Requirements validation through viewpoint resolution,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 12, pp. 1253-1269, Dec. 1991.
[37] U. Leonhardt, A. Finkelstein, I. Kramer, and B. Nuseibeh, "Decentralized process modeling in a multiperspective development environment," Tech. Rep., Dept. of Computing, Imperial College, London, England, UK, Aug. 1994.
[38] W. Litwin, L. Mark, and N. Roussopoulos, "Interoperability of Multiple Autonomous Databases,"ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 22, No. 3, Sept. 1990, pp. 267-293.
[39] S. Meyers, "Difficulties in integrating multiview development systems,"IEEE Software, vol. 8, pp. 49-57, Jan. 1991.
[40] S. Meyers and S. P. Reiss, "A system for multiparadigm development of software systems," inProc. Sixth Int. Workshop on Software Specification and Design, Oct. 1991. (Also available as Brown University Computer Science DepartmentTechnical Report CS-91-50, Aug. 1991.)
[41] P. Mi and W. Scacchi, "Process integration in CASE environments,"IEEE Software, vol. 35, pp. 45-53, Mar. 1992.
[42] G. Mullery, "CORE--a method for controlled requirement specification," inProc. 4th Int. Conf. on Software Eng.Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Soc. Press, 1979, pp. 126-135.
[43] G. Mullery, "Acquisition: Environment," in M. Paul and H. Siegert, Eds.,Distributed Systems: Methods and Tools for Specification, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1985.
[44] C. Niskier, T. Maibaum, and D. Schwabe, "A pluralistic knowledge-based approach to software specification,"Proc. 2nd European Software Eng. Conf. (ESEC '89), 1989, pp. 411-423 (also inLecture Notes in Computer Science 387).
[45] B. Nuseibeh and A. Finkelstein, "ViewPoints: A vehicle for method and tool integration,"Proc. 5th Int. Workshop on Comput.-Aided Software Eng. (CASE '92), 1992, pp. 50-60.
[46] B. Nuseibeh, A. Finkelstein, and J. Kramer, "Fine-grain process modelling,"Proc. 7th Int. Workshop on Software Specification and Design (IWSSD-7), 1993, pp. 42-46.
[47] B. Nuseibeh, A. Finkelstein, and J. Kramer, "Method engineering for multi-perspective software development," inInformation and Software Technology, Stoneham, MA: Butterworth Heinemann (to appear).
[48] L. Osterweil, "Software processes are software too," inProc. 9th Int. Conf. Software Engineering, Monterey, CA, Mar. 1987, pp. 2-13.
[49] W. Robinson, "Integrating multiple specifications using domain goals," inProc. 5th Int. Workshop Software Specification and Design. Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society Press, May 1989, pp. 219-226.
[50] D. T. Ross, "Structured analysis (SA): A language for communicating ideas,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 16-34, Jan. 1977.
[51] J. Rumbaugh, M. Blaha, W. Premerlani, F. Eddy, and W. Lorensen,Object-Oriented Modeling and Design. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1991.
[52] M. Satyanarayanan, "An agenda for research in large-scale distributed data repositories,"Proc. Int. Workshop Operating Syst. 90's and Beyond, 1991, pp. 2-12 (also inLecture Notes in Computer Science 563).
[53] T. Shepard, S. Sibbald, and C. Wortley, "A visual software process language,"Commun. ACM, vol. 35, pp. 37-44, Apr. 1992.
[54] J. Souquières and N. Lévy, "Description of specification developments,"Proc. Int. Symp. Requirements Eng. (RE'93), 1993, pp. 216-223.
[55] J. M. Spivey,The Z Notation: A Reference Manual (Computer Science Series). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall International, 1989.
[56] M. Stanley, "Typing in an object management system (OMS),"Proc. Int. Workshop on Environments, Sept. 1989, pp. 235-250 (also inLecture Notes in Computer Science 467).
[57] T. Thanitsukkarn, "The constructive viewer," MSc. thesis, Dept. of Computing, Imperial College, London, England, UK, Sept. 1993.
[58] Y. Wand and R. Weber, "An ontological model of an information system,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 16, pp. 1282-1292, Nov. 1990.
[59] A. I. Wasserman, "Tool integration in software engineering environments," inProc. Int. Workshop on Environments, Sept. 1989, pp. 137-149 (also inLecture Notes in Computer Science 467).
[60] D. S. Wile, "Local formalisms: Widening the spectrum of wide-spectrum languages," in L. G. L. T. Meertens, Ed.,Program Specification and Transformation, Proc. IFIP TC2/WG2.1 Working Conf. Program Specification and Transformation, Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 1986, pp. 459-482.
[61] D. S. Wile, "Integrating syntaxes and their associated semantics," Tech. Rep. RR-92-297, USC/Inform. Sci. Inst., Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Rey, CA, USA, 1992.
[62] P. Zave, "A compositional approach to multiparadigm programming,"IEEE Software, vol. 5, pp. 15-25, Sept. 1989.
[63] P. Zave and M. Jackson, "Conjunction as composition,"ACM Trans. Software Eng. Methodology, vol. 2, pp. 379-411, Oct. 1993.

Index Terms:
formal specification; multiple views; requirements specification; heterogeneous components; multiple ViewPoints; partial requirements specifications; inter-ViewPoint communication; ViewPoints framework; consistency checking; inconsistency management; requirements specification method; CORE; computer-based ViewPoints support; The Viewer
Citation:
B. Nuseibeh, J. Kramer, A. Finkelstein, "A Framework for Expressing the Relationships Between Multiple Views in Requirements Specification," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 760-773, Oct. 1994, doi:10.1109/32.328995
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.