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Warm Standby in Hierarchically Structured Process-Control Programs
August 1994 (vol. 20 no. 8)
pp. 658-663

We classify standby redundancy design space in process-control programs into the following three categories: cold standby, warm standby, and hot standby. Design parameters of warm standby are identified and the reliability of a system using warm standby is evaluated and compared with that of hot standby. Our analysis indicates that the warm standby scheme is particularly suitable for long-lived unmaintainable systems, especially those operating in harsh environments where burst hardware failures are possible. The feasibility of warm standby is demonstrated with a simulated chemical batch reactor system.

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Index Terms:
process computer control; fault tolerant computing; software reliability; software maintenance; computer integrated manufacturing; redundancy; hierarchically structured process-control programs; standby redundancy design space; process-control programs; cold standby; warm standby; hot standby; system reliability; long-lived unmaintainable systems; burst hardware failures; simulated chemical batch reactor system
Ing-Ray Chen, F.B. Bastani, "Warm Standby in Hierarchically Structured Process-Control Programs," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 658-663, Aug. 1994, doi:10.1109/32.310674
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