This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Test Selection Based on Communicating Nondeterministic Finite-State Machines Using a Generalized Wp-Method
February 1994 (vol. 20 no. 2)
pp. 149-162

Presents a method of generating test sequences for concurrent programs and communication protocols that are modeled as communicating nondeterministic finite-state machines (CNFSMs). A conformance relation, called trace-equivalence, is defined within this model, serving as a guide to test generation. A test generation method for a single nondeterministic finite-state machine (NFSM) is developed, which is an improved and generalized version of the Wp-method that generates test sequences only for deterministic finite-state machines. It is applicable to both nondeterministic and deterministic finite-state machines. When applied to deterministic finite-state machines, it yields usually smaller test suites with full fault coverage than the existing methods that also provide full fault coverage, provided that the number of states in implementation NFSMs are bounded by a known integer. For a system of CNFSMs, the test sequences are generated in the following manner: a system of CNFSMs is first reduced into a single NFSM by reachability analysis; then the test sequences are generated from the resulting NFSM using the generalized Wp-method.

[1] A. V. Aho, B. S. Bosik, and S. J. Griesmer, "Protocol testing and verification within AT&T,"AT&T Tech. J., vol. 69, pp. 4-6, 1990.
[2] N. Arakawa and T. Soncoka, "A test case generation method for concurrent programs,"IFIP Trans., Protocol Testing Syst. IV, Proc. IFIP TC6 4th Int. Workshop Protocol Test Syst., 1991), J. Kroon, R. J. Heijink, and E. Brinksma, eds. North-Holland, 1992, pp. 95-106.
[3] AT&TTech. J., special issue on protocol testing and verification, vol. 69, 1990.
[4] F. Belina and D. Hogrefe, "The CCITT-specification and description language SDL,"Comput. Networks ISDN Syst., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 311-341, Mar. 1989.
[5] G. v. Bochmann, R. Dssouli, and J. R. Zhao, "Trace analysis for conformance and arbitration testing,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 15, pp. 1347-1356, 1989.
[6] G. v. Bochmannet al., "Fault models in testing," inIFIP Trans., Protocol Testing Systems IV (Proc. IFIP TC6 4th Int. Workshop on Protocol Test Systems), Jan Kroon, Rudolf J. Heijink, and Ed Brinksma, Eds. New York: North-Holland, 1992, pp. 17-30.
[7] T. Bolognesi and E. Brinksma, "Introduction to the ISO Specification language LOTOS,"Computer Networks ISDN Syst., vol. 14, pp. 25- 59, 1987.
[8] E. Brinksma, "A theory for the derivation of tests,"IFIP Protocol Specification, Testing and Verification VIII, S. Aggarwal and K. Sabnani, eds. Elsevier (North-Holland), 1988, pp. 63-74.
[9] S. Budkowski and P. Dembinski, "An introduction to Estelle: A specification language for distributed systems,"Comput. Networks ISDN Syst., vol. 14, pp. 3-23, 1987.
[10] T. S. Chow, "Testing software design modeled by finite-state machines,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-4, no. 3, pp. 178-187, 1978.
[11] S. Fujiwara, G. v. Bochmann, F. Khendek, M. Amalou, and A. Ghedamsi, "Test selection based on finite-state models,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 17, pp. 591-603, June 1991.
[12] S. Fujiwara and G. von Bochmann, "Testing non-deterministic state machincs with fault coverage,"Proc. 4th Int. Workshop on Protocol Test Systems (IWPTS'92), North-Holland, 1991, pp. 267-280.
[13] S. Fujiwara and G. v. Bochmann, "Testing nondeterministic finite-state machine," Publication 758, Departement d'informatique et de recherche operationelle, Universitéde Montréal, PQ, Canada, 1991.
[14] A. Gill,Introduction to the Theory of Finite-State Machines. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962, p. 270.
[15] G. Gonenc, "A method for design of fault detection experiments,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-19, pp. 551-558, June 1970.
[16] D. Hogrefe, "MUTEST: OSI formal specification case study: The Inres protocol and service," internal report, 1992.
[17] G. J. Holzmann,Design and Validation of Computer Protocols. Englewood, Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1991.
[18] J.E. Hopcroft and J.D. Ullman,Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1979.
[19] A. Kalnins, "Global state based automatic test generation for SDL,"SDL'91: Evolving Methods (Proc. 5th SDL Forum), North-Holland, 1991, pp. 303-312.
[20] H. Kloosterman, "Test derivation from nondeterministic finite-state machines,"IFIP Trans., Protocol Test Syst., V, Proc. 5th Int. Workshop Protocol Testing Syst., G. v. Bochmann, R. Dssouli and A. Das, eds. North-Holland, 1993, pp. 297-308.
[21] Z. Kohavi,Switching and Finite Automata Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970.
[22] J. Kroon, Inres state tables, private communication, 1992.
[23] G. Luo and J. Chen, "Generating test sequences for communication protocol modeled by CNFSM,"Information Tech.: Advancement, Productivity and Int. Cooperation, Proc. 3rd Pan Pacific Comput. Conf., vol. I, C. Liweiet al., eds. New York: International Academic Publishers, 1989, pp. 688-694.
[24] G. Luo and J. Chen, "Test design for SDL described concurrent communication software,"Int. Conf. Communication Tech. '89. New York: International Academic Publishers, 1989, pp. 207-210.
[25] G. Luo, A. Das, and G. v. Bochmann, "Test selection based on SDL specification with save,"SDL'91: Evolving Methods, Proc. 5th SDL Forum. North-Holland, 1991, pp. 313-324.
[26] G. Luo, G. v. Bochmann, A. Das, and C. Wu, "Failure-equivalent transformation of transition system to avoid internal actions,"Information Processing Lett., vol. 44, pp. 333-343, Dec. 1992.
[27] R. Milner,A Calculus of Communicating Systems (Lecture Notes in Computer Science 92). New York: Springer-Verlag, 1980.
[28] A. Petrenko, "Checking experiments with protocol machines,"IFIP Trans., Protocol Test Syst. IV, Proc. IFIP TC6 4th Int. Workshop Protocol Test Syst.'91, J. Kroon, R. J. Heijink, and E. Brinksma, eds. North-Holland, 1992, pp. 83-94.
[29] A. Petrenko and N. Yevtushenko, "Test suite generation for a FSM with a given type of implementation errors,"Proc. IFIP 12th Int. Symp. Protocol Specification, Testing, and Verification, North-Holland, 1992, pp. 229-243.
[30] D. H. Pitt and D. Freestone, "The derivation of conformance tests from LOTOS specifications,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 16, pp. 1337-1343, Dec. 1990.
[31] D. Rayner, "OSI conformance testing,"Comput. Networks ISDN Syst., North-Holland, no. 14, pp. 79-98, 1987.
[32] A. Bourguet-Rouger and P. Combes, "Exhaustive validation and test generation in Elivis,"SDL Forum'89: The Language at Work, O. Faergemand and M. Manuela Marques, eds. North-Holland, 1989, pp. 231-245.
[33] K. Sabnani and A. Dahbura, "A protocol test generation procedure,"Comput. Networks ISDN Syst., North-Holland, no. 15, pp. 285-297, 1988.
[34] B. Sarikaya, G. v. Bochmann, and E. Cerny, "A test design methodology for protocol testing,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 989-999, Sept. 1987.
[35] SDL Newsletter, Dec. 1991.
[36] D. P. Sidhu and T. K. Leung, "Formal methods for protocol testing: A detailed study,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 15, pp. 413-426, Apr. 1989.
[37] P. H. Starke,Abstract Automata, North-Holland/American Elsevier, 1972, p. 419.
[38] A. Tanenbaum,Computer Networks. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1988.
[39] P. Tripathy and K. Naik, "Generation of adaptive test cases from nondeterministic finite-state models,"IFIP Trans., Protocol Test Syst. V, Proc. 5th Int. Workshop Protocol Testing Syst., G. v. Bochmann, R. Dssouli, and A. Das, eds. North-Holland, 1993, pp. 309-320.
[40] M. P. Vasilevskii, "Failure diagnosis of automata,"Cybernetics, no. 4, 1973, pp. 653-665.
[41] S. T. Vuong, W. W. L. Chan, and M. R. Ito, "The UIOv-method for protocol test sequence generation,"Proc. IFIP TC6 2nd Int. Workshop Protocol Testing Syst., J. de Meer, L. Machert, and W. Effelsberg, eds. North-Holland, 1989, pp. 161-175.
[42] M. F. Witteman, R. C. van Wuijtswinkel, and S. Ruud Berkhout, "Nondeterministic and default behaviour,"IFIP Trans., Protocol Test Syst. V, Proc. 5th Int. Workshop Protocol Testing Syst.G. v. Bochmann, R. Dssouli, and A. Das, eds. North-Holland, 1993, pp. 275-288.

Index Terms:
program testing; multiprocessing programs; protocols; finite state machines; conformance testing; specification languages; software engineering; programming theory; test selection; communicating nondeterministic finite-state machines; generalized Wp-method; test sequence generation; concurrent programs; communication protocols; conformance relation; trace-equivalence; deterministic finite-state machines; test suites; fault coverage; reachability analysis; protocol conformance testing; protocol engineering; SDL; software engineering; software testing
Citation:
Gang Luo, G. von Bochmann, A. Petrenko, "Test Selection Based on Communicating Nondeterministic Finite-State Machines Using a Generalized Wp-Method," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 149-162, Feb. 1994, doi:10.1109/32.265636
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.